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Proprietary file system developed by Microsoft

Full nameNT File System[1]
IntroducedJuly 1993; 28 years ago (1993-07) with Windows NT 3.1
Partition identifier0x07 (MBR)
EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7 (GPT)
Directory contentsB-tree variant[2][3]
File allocationBitmap
Bad blocks$BadClus (MFT Record)
Max. volume size264clusters − 1 cluster (format);
256 TiB − 64 KB (Windows 10 version 1703, Windows Server 2016 or earlier implementation)[4]
8 PB – 2 MB (Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server 2019 or later implementation)[5]
Max. file size16 EiB – 1 KB (format);
16 TB – 64 KB (Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 or earlier implementation)[4]
256 TB – 64 KB (Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 or later implementation)[6]
8 PB – 2 MiB (Windows 10 version 1709, Windows Server 2019 or later implementation)[5]
Max. number of files4,294,967,295 (232-1)[4]
Max. filename length255 UTF-16 code units[7]
Allowed characters in filenames
  • In Win32 namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-insensitive) except as well as NUL[7]
  • In POSIX namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-sensitive) except as well as NUL
  • Trailing spaces are not allowed and will be removed[8]
Dates recordedCreation, modification, POSIX change, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, access
Date range1 January 1601 – 28 May 60056 (File times are 64-bit numbers counting 100-nanosecond intervals (ten million per second) since 1601, which is 58,000+ years)
Date resolution100 ns
ForksYes (see § Alternate data stream (ADS) below)
AttributesRead-only, hidden, system, archive, not content indexed, off-line, temporary, compressed
File system permissionsACLs
Transparent compressionPer-file, LZ77 (Windows NT 3.51 onward)
Transparent encryptionPer-file,
DESX (Windows 2000 onward),
Triple DES (Windows XP onward),
AES (Windows XP Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2003 onward)
Data deduplicationYes (Windows Server 2012)[9]
Supported operating systemsWindows NT 3.1 and later
Mac OS X 10.3 and later (read-only)
Linux kernel version 2.6 and later
Linux kernel versions 2.2-2.4 (read-only)
Chrome OS
ReactOS (read-only)

NTFS (New Technology File System)[1] is a proprietaryjournaling file system developed by Microsoft.[1] Starting with Windows NT 3.1, it is the default file system of the Windows NT family.[10]

NTFS has several technical improvements over the file systems that it superseded – File Allocation Table (FAT) and High Performance File System (HPFS) – such as improved support for metadata and advanced data structures to improve performance, reliability, and disk space use. Additional extensions are a more elaborate security system based on access control lists (ACLs) and file system journaling.

NTFS is supported in other desktop and server operating systems as well. Linux and BSD have a free and open-source NTFS driver, called NTFS-3G, with both read and write functionality. macOS comes with read-only support for NTFS. Windows is additionally capable of directly converting FAT32/16/12 into NTFS without the need to rewrite all files.[11]


In the mid-1980s, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, Microsoft and IBM formed a joint project to create the next generation of graphical operating system; the result was OS/2 and HPFS. Because Microsoft disagreed with IBM on many important issues, they eventually separated; OS/2 remained an IBM project and Microsoft worked to develop Windows NT and NTFS.

The HPFS file system for OS/2 contained several important new features. When Microsoft created their new operating system, they "borrowed" many of these concepts for NTFS.[12] The original NTFS developers were Tom Miller, Gary Kimura, Brian Andrew, and David Goebel.[13]

Probably as a result of this common ancestry, HPFS and NTFS use the same disk partition identification type code (07). Using the same Partition ID Record Number is highly unusual, since there were dozens of unused code numbers available, and other major file systems have their own codes. For example, FAT has more than nine (one each for FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, etc.). Algorithms identifying the file system in a partition type 07 must perform additional checks to distinguish between HPFS and NTFS, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen.


Microsoft has released five versions of NTFS:

The version number (e.g. v5.0 in Windows 2000) is based on the operating system version; it should not be confused with the NTFS version number (v3.1 since Windows XP).[17]

Although subsequent versions of Windows added new file system-related features, they did not change NTFS itself. For example, Windows Vista implemented NTFS symbolic links, Transactional NTFS, partition shrinking, and self-healing.[18] NTFS symbolic links are a new feature in the file system; all the others are new operating system features that make use of NTFS features already in place.


NTFS is optimized for 4 KBclusters, but supports a maximum cluster size of 2 MB. (Earlier implementations support up to 64 KB)[5] The maximum NTFS volume size that the specification can support is 264 − 1 clusters, but not all implementations achieve this theoretical maximum, as discussed below, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen.

The maximum NTFS volume size implemented in Windows XP Professional is 232 − 1 clusters, partly due to partition table limitations. For example, using 64 KB clusters, the maximum size Windows XP NTFS volume is 256 TB minus 64 KB. Using the default cluster size of 4 KB, the maximum NTFS volume size is 16 TB minus 4 KB. Both of these are vastly higher than the 128 GB limit in Windows XP SP1. Because partition tables on master boot record (MBR) disks support only partition sizes up to 2 TB, multiple GUID Partition Table (GPT or "dynamic") volumes must be combined to create a single NTFS volume larger than 2 TB. Booting from a GPT volume to a Windows environment in a Microsoft supported way requires a system with Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) and 64-bit support.[19]

The NTFS maximum theoretical limit on the size of individual files is 16 EB[20] (16 × 10246 or 264 bytes) minus 1 KB, which totals 18,446,744,073,709,550,592 bytes. With Windows 10 version 1709 and Windows Server 2019, the maximum implemented file size is 8 PB minus 2 MB or 9,007,199,252,643,840 bytes.[5]


NTFS is a journaling file system and uses the NTFS Log ($LogFile) to record metadata changes to the volume. It is a feature that FAT does not provide and critical for NTFS to ensure that its complex internal data structures will remain consistent in case of system crashes or data moves performed by the defragmentation API, and allow easy rollback of uncommitted changes to these critical data structures when the volume is remounted. Notably affected structures are the volume allocation bitmap, modifications to MFT records such as moves of some variable-length attributes stored in MFT records and attribute lists, and indices for directories and security descriptors.

The ($LogFile) format has evolved through several versions:

The incompatibility of the $LogFile versions implemented by Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 prevents Windows 8 (and earlier versions of Windows) from correctly processing the $LogFile in case the NTFS volume is left in the dirty state by an abrupt shutdown or by hibernating to disk in the logoff state (a.k.a.: Hybrid Boot or Fast Boot, which is enabled by default in Windows 10). This inability to process the v2.0 of the $LogFile on dirty volumes by these earlier versions of Windows results in invocation of the CHKDSK disk repair utility when dual-booting Windows 10 with these older systems. A Windows Registry setting exists to prevent the automatic upgrade of the $LogFile to the newer version.[21][better source needed]

The USN Journal (Update Sequence Number Journal) is a system management feature that records (in $Extend\$UsnJrnl) changes to files, streams and directories on the volume, as well as their various attributes and security settings. The journal is made available for applications to track changes to the volume.[22] This journal can be enabled or disabled on non-system volumes.[23]

Hard links[edit]

The hard link feature allows different file names to directly refer to the same file contents. Hard links may link only to files in the same volume, because each volume has its own MFT. Hard links were originally included to support the POSIX subsystem in Windows NT.[24]

Although Hard links use the same MFT record (inode) which records file metadata such as file size, modification date, and attributes, NTFS also caches this data in the directory entry as a performance enhancement. This means that when listing the contents of a directory using FindFirstFile/FindNextFile family of APIs, (equivalent to the POSIX opendir/readdir APIs) you will also receive this cached information, in addition to the name and inode. However, you may not see up-to-date information, as this information is only guaranteed to be updated when a file is closed, and then only for the directory from which the file was opened.[25] This means where a file has multiple names via hard links, updating a file via one name does not update the cached data associated with the other name. You can always obtain up-to-date data using GetFileInformationByHandle (which is the true equivalent of POSIX stat function), Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. This can be done using a handle which has no access to the file itself (passing zero to CreateFile for dwDesiredAccess), and closing this handle has the incidental effect of updating the cached information.

Windows uses hard links to support short (8.3) filenames in NTFS. Operating system support is needed because there are legacy applications that can work only with 8.3 filenames, but support can be disabled. In this case, an additional filename record and directory entry is added, but both 8.3 and long file name are linked and updated together, unlike a regular hard link.

The NTFS file system has a limit of 1024 hard links on a file.[26]

Alternate data stream (ADS)[edit]

Main article: Fork (file system)

Alternate data streams allow more than one data stream to be associated with a filename (a fork), using the format "filename:streamname" (e.g., "text.txt:extrastream").

NTFS Streams were introduced in Windows NT 3.1, to enable Services for Macintosh (SFM) to store resource forks. Although current versions of Windows Server no longer include SFM, third-party Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) products (such as GroupLogic's ExtremeZ-IP) still use this feature of the file system. Very small ADSs (named "Zone.Identifier") are added by Internet Explorer and recently[when?] by other browsers to mark files downloaded from external sites as possibly unsafe to run; the local shell would then require user confirmation before opening them.[27] When the user indicates that he no longer wants this confirmation dialog, this ADS is deleted.

Alternate streams are not listed in Windows Explorer, and their size is not included in the file's size. When the file is copied or moved to another file system without ADS support the user is warned that alternate data streams cannot be preserved. No such warning is typically provided if the file is attached to an e-mail, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, or uploaded to a website. Thus, using alternate streams for critical data may cause problems. Microsoft provides a tool called Streams[28] to view streams on a selected volume. Starting with Windows PowerShell 3.0, it is possible to manage ADS natively with six cmdlets: Add-Content, Clear-Content, Get-Content, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, Get-Item, Remove-Item, Set-Content.[29]

Malware has used alternate data streams to hide code.[30] As a result, malware scanners and other special tools now check Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen alternate data streams.

File compression[edit]

NTFS can compress files using LZNT1 algorithm (a variant of LZ77)[31] Files are compressed in 16 cluster chunks. With 4 KB clusters, files are compressed in 64 KB chunks. The compression algorithms in NTFS are designed to support cluster sizes of up to 4 KB. When the cluster Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen is greater than 4 KB on an NTFS volume, NTFS compression is not available.[32]

However, large compressible files become highly fragmented since every chunk smaller than 64 KB becomes a fragment.[33][34]

Single-user systems with limited hard disk space can benefit from NTFS compression for small files, from 4 KB to 64 KB or more, depending on compressibility. Files smaller than approximately 900 bytes are stored within the directory entry of the MFT.[35]

Flash memory, such as SSD drives do not have the head movement delays and high access time of mechanical hard disk drives, so fragmentation has only a smaller penalty. Users of fast multi-core processors will find improvements in application speed by compressing their applications and data as well as a reduction in space used. Note that SSDs with Sandforce controllers already compress data, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. However, since less data is transferred, there is a reduction in I/Os.[36]

Compression works best with files that have repetitive content, are seldom written, are usually accessed sequentially, and are not themselves compressed. Files may be compressed or decompressed individually (via Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen the advanced attributes) for a drive, directory, or directory tree, becoming a default for the files inside.

If system files that are needed at boot time (such as drivers, NTLDR, winload.exe, or BOOTMGR) are compressed, the system may fail to boot correctly, because decompression filters are not yet loaded.[37] Later editions of Windows[which?] do not allow important system files to be compressed.

According to research by Microsoft's NTFS Development team, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, 50–60 GB is a reasonable maximum size for a compressed file on an NTFS volume with a 4 KB (default) cluster (block) size. This reasonable maximum size decreases sharply for volumes with smaller cluster sizes.[33] If the compression reduces 64 KB of data to 60 KB or less, NTFS treats the unneeded 4 KB pages like empty sparse file clusters—they are not written. This allows for reasonable random-access times as the OS merely has to follow the chain of fragments.

Although read–write access to compressed files is transparent,[38] Microsoft recommends avoiding compression on servers or network shares holding roaming profiles, because it puts a considerable load on the processor.[39]

CompactOS algorithms[edit]

Since Windows 10, Microsoft has introduced additional algorithms, namely XPRESS4K/8K/16K and LZX. Both algorithms are based on LZ77 with Huffman entropy coding, which LZNT1 lacked. These algorithms were taken from the Windows Imaging Format. They are mainly used for new CompactOS feature, which compresses the entire system partition using one of these algorithms.[40] They can also be manually turned on per file with the flag of the command. When used on files, CompactOS algorithm avoids fragmentation by writing compressed data in contiguously allocated chunks.[citation needed]

Sparse files[edit]

A sparse file: Empty bytes don't need to be saved, thus they can be represented by metadata.

Sparse files are files interspersed with empty segments for which no actual storage space is used. To the applications, the file looks like an ordinary file with empty regions seen as regions filled with zeros.[41] A sparse file does not necessarily include sparse zeros areas; the "sparse file" attribute just means that the file is allowed to have them.

Database applications, for instance, may use sparse files.[42] As with compressed files, the actual sizes of sparse files are not taken into account when determining quota limits.[43]

Volume Shadow Copy[edit]

The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) keeps historical versions of files and folders on NTFS volumes by copying old, newly overwritten data to shadow copy via copy-on-write technique, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. The user may later request an earlier version to be recovered. This also allows data backup programs to archive files currently in use by the file system. On heavily loaded systems, Microsoft recommends setting up a shadow copy volume on a separate disk.[44]

Windows Vista also introduced persistent shadow copies for use with System Restore and Previous Versions features. Persistent shadow copies, however, are deleted when an older operating system mounts that NTFS volume. This happens because the older operating system does not understand the newer format of persistent shadow copies.[45]


As of Windows Vista, applications can use Transactional NTFS (TxF) to group multiple changes to files together into a single transaction. The transaction will guarantee that either all of the changes happen, or none of them do, and that no application outside the transaction will see the changes until they are committed.[46]

It uses similar techniques as those used for Volume Shadow Copies (i.e. Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen to ensure that overwritten data can be safely rolled back, and a CLFS log to mark the transactions that have still not been committed, or those that have been committed but still not fully applied (in case of system crash during a commit by one of the participants).

Transactional NTFS does not restrict transactions to just the local NTFS volume, but also includes other transactional data or operations in other locations such as data stored in separate volumes, the local registry, or SQL databases, or the current states of system services or remote services. These transactions are coordinated network-wide with all participants using a specific service, the DTC, to ensure that all participants will receive same commit state, and to transport the changes that have been validated by any participant (so that the others can invalidate their local caches for old data or rollback their ongoing uncommitted changes). Transactional NTFS allows, for example, the creation of network-wide consistent distributed file systems, including with their local live or offline caches.

Microsoft now advises against using TxF: "Microsoft strongly recommends developers utilize alternative means" since "TxF may not be available in future versions of Microsoft Windows".[47]


In NTFS, each file or folder is assigned a security descriptor that defines its owner and contains two access control lists (ACLs). The first ACL, called discretionary access control list (DACL), defines exactly what type of interactions (e.g. reading, writing, executing or deleting) are allowed or forbidden by which user or groups of users. For example, files in the folder may be read and executed by all users but modified only by a user holding administrative privileges.[48] Windows Vista adds mandatory access control info to DACLs. DACLs are the primary focus of User Account Control in Windows Vista and later.

The second ACL, called system access control list (SACL), defines which interactions with the file or folder are to be audited and whether they should be logged when the activity is successful, failed or both. For example, auditing can be enabled on sensitive files of a company, so that its managers get to know when someone tries to delete them or make a copy of them, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, and whether he or she succeeds.[48]


Main article: Encrypting File System

Encrypting File System (EFS) provides strong[49] and user-transparent encryption of any file or folder on an NTFS volume. EFS works in conjunction with the EFS service, Microsoft's CryptoAPI and the EFS File System Run-Time Library (FSRTL). EFS works by encrypting a file with a bulk symmetric key (also known as the File Encryption Key, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen FEK), which is used because it takes a relatively small amount of time to encrypt and decrypt large amounts of data than if an asymmetric key cipher is used. The symmetric key that is used to encrypt the file is then encrypted with a public key that is associated with the user who encrypted the file, and this encrypted data is stored in an alternate data stream of the encrypted file. To decrypt the file, the file system uses the private key of the user to decrypt the symmetric key that is stored in the data stream. It then uses the symmetric key to decrypt the file, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. Because this is done at the file system level, it is transparent to the user.[50] Also, in case of a user losing access to their key, support for additional decryption keys has been built into the EFS system, so that a recovery agent can still access the files if needed. NTFS-provided encryption and NTFS-provided compression are mutually exclusive; however, NTFS can be used for one and a third-party tool for the other.

The support of EFS is not available in Basic, Home, and MediaCenter versions of Windows, and must be activated after installation of Professional, Ultimate, and Server versions of Windows or by using enterprise deployment tools within Windows domains.


Disk quotas were introduced in NTFS v3. They allow the administrator of a computer that runs a version of Windows that supports NTFS to set a threshold of disk space that users may use. It also allows administrators to keep track of how much disk space each user is using. An administrator may specify a certain level of disk space that a user may use before they receive a warning, and then deny access to the user once they hit their upper limit of space. Disk quotas do not take into account NTFS's transparent file-compression, should this be enabled. Applications that query the amount of free space will also see the amount of free space left to the user who has a quota applied to them.

Reparse points[edit]

Main article: NTFS reparse point

Introduced in NTFS v3, NTFS reparse points are used by associating a reparse tag in the user space attribute of a file or directory. Microsoft includes several default tags including symbolic links, directory junction points and volume mount points. When the Object Manager parses a file system name lookup and encounters a reparse attribute, it will reparse the name lookup, passing the user controlled reparse data to every file system filter driver that is loaded into Windows. Each filter driver examines the reparse data to see whether it is associated with that reparse point, and if that filter driver determines a match, then it intercepts the file system request and performs its special functionality.


Starting with Windows Vista Microsoft added the built-in ability to shrink or expand a partition. However, this ability does not relocate page file fragments or files that have been marked as unmovable, so shrinking a volume will often require relocating or disabling any page file, the index of Windows Search, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, and any Shadow Copy used by System Restore. Various third-party tools are capable of resizing NTFS partitions.


Internally, NTFS uses B-trees to index file system data. A file system journal is used to guarantee the integrity of the file system metadata but not individual files' content. Systems using NTFS are known to have improved reliability compared to FAT file systems.[51]

NTFS allows any sequence of 16-bit values Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen name encoding (file names, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen names, index names, etc.) except 0x0000. This means UTF-16 code units are supported, but the file system does not check whether a sequence is valid UTF-16 (it allows any sequence of short values, not restricted to those in the Unicode standard). In Win32 namespace, any UTF-16 code units are case insensitive whereas in POSIX namespace they are case sensitive. File names are limited to 255 UTF-16 code units. Certain names are reserved in the volume root directory and cannot be used for files. These are, (dot),,and .[4] (dot) and are both directories; the others are files. The NT kernel limits full paths to 32,767 UTF-16 code units. There are some additional restrictions on code points and Product key for windows xp pack 2 crack serial keygen names.[52]

Partition Boot Sector (VBR)[edit]

This boot partition format is roughly based upon the earlier Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen filesystem, but the fields are in different locations. Some of these fields, especially the "sectors per track", "number of heads" and "hidden sectors" fields may contain dummy values on drives where they either do not make sense or are not determinable.

The OS first looks at the 8 bytes at 0x30 to find the cluster number of the $MFT, then multiplies that number by the number of sectors per cluster (1 byte found at 0x0D). This value is the sector offset (LBA) to the $MFT, which is described below.

Master File Table[edit]

In NTFS, all file, directory and metafile data—file name, creation date, access permissions (by the use of access control lists), and size—are stored as metadata in the Master File Table (MFT). This abstract approach allowed easy addition of file system features during Windows NT's development—an example is the addition of fields for indexing used by the Active Directory software. This also enables fast file search software to locate named local files and folders included in the MFT very quickly, without requiring any other index.

The MFT structure supports algorithms which minimize disk fragmentation.[55] A directory entry consists of a filename and a "file ID" (analogous to the inode number), which is the record number representing the file in the Master File Table. The file Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen also contains a reuse count to detect stale references. While this strongly resembles the W_FID of Files-11, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, other NTFS structures radically differ.

A partial copy of the MFT, called the MFT mirror, is stored to be used in case of corruption.[56] If the first record of the MFT is corrupted, NTFS reads the second record to find the MFT mirror file. Locations for both files are stored in the boot sector.[57]


NTFS contains several files that define and organize the file system. In all respects, most of these files are structured like any other user file ($Volume being the most peculiar), but are not of direct interest to file system clients.[58] These metafiles define files, back up critical file system data, buffer file system changes, manage free space allocation, satisfy BIOS expectations, track bad allocation units, and store security and disk space usage information. All content is in an unnamed data stream, unless otherwise indicated.

These metafiles are treated specially by Windows, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, handled directly by the driver and are difficult to directly view: special purpose-built tools are needed.[59] As of Windows 7, the NTFS driver completely prohibits user access, resulting in a BSoD whenever an attempt to execute a metadata file is made. One such tool is the nfi.exe ("NTFS File Sector Information Utility") that is freely distributed as part of the Microsoft "OEM Support Tools". For example, to obtain information on Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen "$MFT"-Master File Table Segment the following command is used: [60] Another way to bypass the restriction is to use 7-Zip's file manager and go to the low-level NTFS path (where resembles any drive/partition). Here, 3 new folders will appear: (a pseudo-folder that 7-Zip uses to attach files deleted from the file system to view), and (another pseudo-folder that contains all the NTFS metadata files). This trick can be used from removable devices (USB flash drives, external hard drives, SD Cards, etc.) inside Windows, but doing this on the active partition requires offline access (namely WinRE).

Attribute lists, attributes, and streams[edit]

For each file (or directory) described in the MFT record, there is a linear repository of stream descriptors (also named attributes), packed together in one or more MFT records (containing the so-called attributes list), with extra padding to fill the fixed 1 KB size of every MFT record, and that fully describes the effective streams associated with that file.

Each attribute has an attribute type (a fixed-size integer mapping to an attribute definition in file $AttrDef), an optional attribute name (for example, used as the name for an alternate data stream), and a value, represented in a sequence of bytes. For NTFS, the standard data of files, the alternate data streams, or the index data for directories are stored as attributes.

According to $AttrDef, some attributes can be either resident or non-resident, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. The $DATA attribute, which contains file data, is such an example. When the attribute is resident (which is represented by a flag), its value is stored directly in the MFT record. Otherwise, clusters are allocated Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen the data, and the cluster location information is stored as data runs in the attribute.

  • For each file in the MFT, the attributes identified by attribute type, attribute name must be unique. Additionally, NTFS has some ordering constraints for these attributes.
  • There is a predefined null attribute type, used to indicate the end of the list of attributes in one MFT record. It must be present as the last attribute in the record (all other storage space available after it will be ignored and just consists of padding bytes to match the record size in the MFT).
  • Some attribute types are required and must be present in each MFT record, except unused records that are just indicated by null attribute types.
    • This is the case for the $STANDARD_INFORMATION attribute that is stored as a fixed-size record and contains the timestamps and other basic single-bit attributes (compatible with those managed by FAT in DOS or Windows 9x).
  • Some attribute types cannot have a name and must remain anonymous.
    • This is the case for the standard attributes, or for the preferred NTFS "filename" attribute type, or the "short filename" attribute type, when it is also present (for compatibility with DOS-like applications, see below). It is also possible for a file to contain only a short filename, in which case it will be the preferred one, as listed in the Windows Explorer.
    • The filename attributes stored in the attribute list do not make the file immediately accessible through the hierarchical file system. In fact, all the filenames must be indexed separately in at least one other directory on the same volume. There it must have its own MFT record and its own security descriptors and attributes that reference the MFT record number for this file. This allows the same file or directory to be "hardlinked" several times from several containers on the same volume, possibly with distinct filenames.
  • The default data stream of a regular file is a stream of type $DATA but with an anonymous name, and the ADSs are similar but must be named.
  • On the other hand, the default data stream of directories has a distinct type, but are not anonymous: they have an attribute name ("$I30" in NTFS 3+) that reflects its indexing format.

All attributes of a given file may be displayed by using the nfi.exe ("NTFS File Sector Information Utility") that is freely distributed as part of the Microsoft "OEM Support Tools".[60]

Windows system calls may handle alternate data streams.[4] Depending on the operating system, utility and remote file system, a file transfer might silently strip data streams.[4] A safe way of copying or moving files is to use the BackupRead and BackupWrite system calls, which allow programs to enumerate streams, to verify whether each stream should be written to the destination volume and to knowingly skip unwanted streams.[4]


To optimize the storage and reduce the I/O overhead for the very common case of attributes with very small associated value, NTFS prefers to place the value within the attribute itself (if the size of the attribute does not then exceed the maximum size of an MFT record), instead of using the MFT record space to list clusters containing the data; in that case, the attribute will not store the data directly but will just store an allocation map (in the form of data runs) pointing to the actual data stored elsewhere on the volume.[61] When the value can be Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen directly from within the attribute, it is called "resident data" (by computer forensics workers), Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. The amount of data that fits is highly dependent on the file's characteristics, but 700 to 800 bytes is common in single-stream files with non-lengthy filenames and no ACLs.

  • Some attributes (such as the preferred filename, the basic file attributes) cannot be made non-resident. For non-resident attributes, their allocation map must fit within MFT records.
  • Encrypted-by-NTFS, sparse data streams, or compressed data streams cannot be made resident.
  • The format of the allocation map for non-resident attributes depends on its capability of supporting sparse data storage. In the current implementation of NTFS, once a non-resident data stream has been marked and converted as sparse, it cannot be changed back to non-sparse data, so it cannot become resident again, unless this data is fully truncated, discarding the sparse allocation map completely.
  • When a non-resident attribute is so fragmented, that its effective allocation map cannot fit entirely within one MFT record, NTFS stores the attribute in multiple records. The first one among them is called the base record, while the others are called extension records. NTFS creates a special attribute $ATTRIBUTE_LIST to store information mapping different parts of the long attribute to the MFT records, which means the allocation map may be split into multiple records. The $ATTRIBUTE_LIST itself can also be non-resident, but its own allocation map must fit within one MFT record.
  • When there are too many attributes for a file (including ADS's, extended attributes, or security descriptors), so that they cannot fit all within the MFT record, extension records may also be used to store the other attributes, using the same format as the one used in the base MFT record, but without the space constraints of one MFT record.

The allocation map is stored in a form of data runs with compressed encoding. Each data run represents a contiguous group of clusters that store the attribute value. For files on a multi-GB volume, each entry can be encoded as 5 to 7 bytes, which means a 1 KB MFT record can store about 100 such data runs. However, as the $ATTRIBUTE_LIST also has a size limit, it is dangerous to have more than 1 million fragments of a single file on an NTFS volume, which also REVisionFX Twixtor Pro v4.5.9 crack serial keygen that it is in general not a good idea to use NTFS compression on a file larger than 10 GB.[62]

The NTFS file system driver will sometimes attempt to relocate the data of some of the attributes that can be made non-resident Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen the clusters, and will also attempt to relocate the data stored in clusters back to the attribute inside the MFT record, based on priority and preferred ordering rules, and size constraints.

Since resident files do not directly occupy clusters ("allocation units"), it is possible for an NTFS volume to contain more files on a volume than there are clusters. For example, a 74.5 GB partition NTFS formats with 19,543,064 clusters of 4 KB. Subtracting system files (a 64 MB log file, a 2,442,888-byte Bitmap file, and about 25 clusters of fixed overhead) leaves 19,526,158 clusters free for files and indices. Since there are four MFT records per cluster, this volume theoretically could hold almost 4 × 19,526,158= 78,104,632 resident files.

Opportunistic locks[edit]

Opportunistic file locks (oplocks) allow clients to alter their buffering strategy for a given file or stream in order to increase performance and reduce network use.[63] Oplocks apply to the given open stream of a file and do not affect oplocks on a different stream.

Oplocks can be used to transparently access files in the background. A network client may avoid writing information into a file on a remote server if no other process is accessing the data, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, or it may buffer read-ahead data if no other process is writing data.

Windows supports four different types of oplocks:

  • Level 2 (or shared) oplock: multiple readers, no writers (i.e. read caching).
  • Level 1 (or exclusive) oplock: exclusive access with arbitrary buffering (i.e. read and write caching).
  • Batch oplock (also exclusive): a stream is opened on the server, but closed on the client machine (i.e. read, write and handle caching).
  • Filter oplock (also exclusive): applications and file system filters can "back out" when others try to access the same stream (i.e. read and write caching) (since Windows 2000)

Opportunistic locks have been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with per-client oplock keys.[64]


Windows NT and its descendants keep internal timestamps as UTC and make the appropriate conversions for display purposes; all NTFS timestamps are in UTC.[citation needed]

For historical reasons, the versions of Windows that do not support NTFS all keep time internally as local zone time, and therefore so do all file systems – other than NTFS – that are supported by current versions of Windows. This means that when files are copied or moved between NTFS and non-NTFS partitions, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, the OS needs to convert timestamps on the fly. But if some files are moved when daylight saving time (DST) Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen in effect, and other files are moved when standard time is in effect, there can be some ambiguities in the conversions. As a result, especially shortly after one of the days on which local zone time changes, users may observe that some files have timestamps that are incorrect by one hour. Due to the differences in implementation of DST in different jurisdictions, this can result in a potential timestamp error of up to 4 hours in any given 12 months.[65]


While the different NTFS versions are for the most part fully forward- and backward-compatible, there are technical considerations for mounting newer NTFS volumes in older versions of Microsoft Windows. This affects dual-booting, and external portable hard drives. For example, attempting to use an NTFS partition with "Previous Versions" (a.k.a. Volume Shadow Copy) on an operating system that does not support it will result in the contents of those previous versions being lost.[66] A Windows command-line utility called convert.exe can convert supporting file systems to NTFS, including HPFS (only on Windows NT 3.1, 3.5, and 3.51), FAT16 and FAT32 (on Windows 2000 and later).[67][68]

As of Windows 10 version 1709, known as the Fall Creators Update, Microsoft requires the OneDrive file structure to reside on an NTFS disk.[69] This is because OneDrive Files On-Demand feature uses NTFS reparse points to link files and folders that are stored in OneDrive to the local filesystem, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, thus making the file or folder unusable with any previous version of Windows, with any other NTFS file system driver, or any file system and backup utilities not updated to support it.[70]


FreeBSD 3.2 released in May 1999 included read-only NTFS support written by Semen Ustimenko.[71][72] This implementation was ported to Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen by Christos Zoulas and Jaromir Dolecek and released with NetBSD 1.5 in December 2000.[73] The FreeBSD implementation of NTFS was also ported to OpenBSD by Julien Bordet and offers native read-only NTFS support by default on i386 and amd64 platforms as of version 4.9 released 1 May 2011.[74][72]

Linux kernel versions 2.1.74 and later include a driver written by Martin von Löwis which has the ability to read NTFS partitions;[75] kernel versions 2.5.11 and later contain a new driver written by Anton Altaparmakov (University of Cambridge) and Richard Russon which supports file read.[76][77][75] The ability to write to files was introduced with kernel version 2.6.15 in 2006 which allows users to write to existing files but does not allow the creation of new ones.[78] Paragon's NTFS driver (see below) has been merged into kernel version 5.15, and it supports read/write on normal, compressed and sparse files, as well as journal replaying.[79]

Mac OS X 10.3 included Ustimenko's read-only implementation of NTFS from FreeBSD. Then in 2006 Apple hired Anton Altaparmakov to write a new NTFS implementation for Mac OS X 10.6.[80] Native NTFS write support is included in 10.6 and later, but is not activated by default, although workarounds do exist to enable the functionality. However, user reports indicate the functionality is unstable and tends to cause kernel panics.[81]

Captive NTFS, a 'wrapping' driver that uses Windows' own driver ntfs.sys, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, exists for Linux. It was built as a Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) program and released under the GPL but work on Captive NTFS ceased in 2006.[82]

NTFS-3G is a free GPL-licensed Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen implementation of NTFS that was initially developed as a Linux kernel driver by Szabolcs Szakacsits. It was re-written as a FUSE program to work on other systems that FUSE supports like macOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD,[83] Solaris, QNX, and Haiku[84] and allows reading and writing to NTFS partitions, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen. A performance enhanced commercial version of NTFS-3G, called "Tuxera NTFS for Mac", is also available from the NTFS-3G developers.[85]

Paragon Software Group sells a read-write driver named NTFS for Mac OS X,[86] which is also included on some models of Seagate hard drives.[87]

The NetDrive package for OS/2 (and derivatives such as eComStation and ArcaOS) supports a plugin which allows read and write access to NTFS volumes.[88][89]

There is a free-for-personal-use read/write driver for MS-DOS by Avira called "NTFS4DOS".[90][91]

Ahead Software developed a "NTFSREAD" driver (version 1.200) for DR-DOS 7.0x between 2002 and 2004. It was part of their Nero Burning ROM software.

See also[edit]


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Further reading[edit]

Источник: []

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  • Administrator rights

PCHelpSoft Driver Updater Crack

How to decrypt, register or activate the PCHelpSoft Software Updater:

  1. Uninstall the previous version using IOBIT Uninstaller
  2. Download and extract files (may need IDM or WinRAR)
  3. Install the program and then close it
  4. Use Keygen to Activate (Included in ZIP File)
  5. Enjoy!

PCHelpSoft Driver Updater 5.4.556 Crack With License Key [Latest] From Links Are Given Below!

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Windows 10 Pro Product Key Free

Windows 10 Pro has now become the world’s most popular operating system with 400 million users. Windows 10 Pro was released on July 29, 2015 and it comes with great new features that help you to do things easily and fast.

Windows 10 Pro product key is a Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen key which you will require when you activate your Windows 10 Pro. This window 10 product key make sure that your copy of Windows 10 serial key hasn’t been used on more PCs than the Microsoft Software Terms allow. The windows10 Pro key is a 25-character code that’s used to activate windows on your computer. It looks like this: XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX.

To download Windows 10 Pro ISO you visit here

I also sell cheap Windows 10 Pro product key ($25/ key). If you want to buy it you can visit:

Windows 10 Pro Product A-PDF Password Security 2.4.1 crack serial keygen Free 2021

  • W269N-WFGWX-YVC9B-4J6C9-T83GX
  • MH37W-N47XK-V7XM9-C7227-GCQG9

Then you copy and paste this key

Windows 10 Pro Product Key

If these keys don’t work, you can use new mothed to activate Windows 10 Pro for free in 2020:

How to activate Windows 10 Pro without product key for free (180 days)

Method 1: You use a batch file to activate Windows 10 Pro (32/64 bit)

Step 1: You visit
Step 2: You copy the code above into a new text document


Step 3: You save it as a batch file, name “1click.cmd”

Note: IF you use windows 10, you disable Windows Defender

save code as batch file


Step 4Run the batch file as administrator


You can see the result


Update 09-10-2019: Now Microsoft doesn’t allow to use batch file so Windows Defender detects my scripts as “HackTool:BAT/AutoKMS”. Somebody sent an email to me to describe their problem:” When I opened it as admin, the command center just popped up then disappear”. So you need to disable Windows Defender on Windows 10 or you can try method 2 below.

You can watch this video to know how to activate Windows 10 Pro by batch file:

Method 2: You use KMS client key to activate your Windows 10 Pro manually

You can read these articles to know:

Step 1: You select the right key for your Windows 10 Pro.
Here is the list of Windows 10 Pro KMS keys:

Windows 10 Pro key: W269N-WFGWX-YVC9B-4J6C9-T83GX
Windows 10 Pro N key: MH37W-N47XK-V7XM9-C7227-GCQG9

Windows 10 Pro Workstations key: NRG8B-VKK3Q-CXVCJ-9G2XF-6Q84J

Windows 10 Pro Workstations N key: 9FNHH-K3HBT-3W4TD-6383H-6XYWF

Windows 10 Pro Education key: 6TP4R-GNPTD-KYYHQ-7B7DP-J447Y

Note: If you don’t know which Windows 10 edition you use (Windows 10 Pro, Windows 10 Pro N…), you can read this article to know it:

Step 2: You right-click on the start button and open Command Prompt (Admin).


Step 3: You use the command “slmgr /ipk yourlicensekey” to install a license key (yourlicensekey is the activation key you got at step 1).


(*Note*: You need to hit [Enter] key to execute commands.)


Step 4: You use the command “slmgr /skms” to connect to my KMS server.



Step 5: The last step is to activate your Windows you use the command “slmgr /ato”.



You check the activation status again.

windows-10-for-free-10You can watch this video to know more:

You can use this method to remove activate Windows 10 watermark

If you use another Windows 10 edition (Windows 10 Home, Windows 10 Enterprise…), you can get another Windows 10 product key here:

Home: TX9XD-98N7V-6WMQ6-BX7FG-H8Q99
Home Single Language: 7HNRX-D7KGG-3K4RQ-4WPJ4-YTDFH
Home Country Specific: PVMJN-6DFY6-9CCP6-7BKTT-D3WVR
Education: NW6C2-QMPVW-D7KKK-3GKT6-VCFB2
Education N: 2WH4N-8QGBV-H22JP-CT43Q-MDWWJ
Enterprise: NPPR9-FWDCX-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43
Enterprise N: DPH2V-TTNVB-4X9Q3-TJR4H-KHJW4

Enterprise G: YYVX9-NTFWV-6MDM3-9PT4T-4M68B

Enterprise G N: 44RPN-FTY23-9VTTB-MP9BX-T84FV

Enterprise LTSC 2019: M7XTQ-FN8P6-TTKYV-9D4CC-J462D

Enterprise N LTSC 2019: 92NFX-8DJQP-P6BBQ-THF9C-7CG2H


Enterprise N LTSB 2016: QFFDN-GRT3P-VKWWX-X7T3R-8B639

Windows 10 Core: 33QT6-RCNYF-DXB4F-DGP7B-7MHX9

Windows 10 S (Lean): NBTWJ-3DR69-3C4V8-C26MC-GQ9M6

You can also use Microsoft Toolkit to activate Windows 10 Pro.

With this method, you can activate both Windows 10 Pro 32-bit and 64-bit without product Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen 10 Pro Product Key Free 2021, Windows 10 Pro Product Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen 32 bit, Windows 10 Pro Product Key 64 bit, Windows 10 Pro activation key, windows 10 Pro Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen key, Windows 10 product key free, Windows 10 License Key, Windows 10 Professional activation key, free Windows 10 Pro product key, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, Windows 10 activator

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WinZip Pro 26.0 Crack With License Key Updated

WinZip Crack

WinZip Pro 26.0 Crack is a perfect tool that can help you to deal with compressing and archiving files. On the other hand, this software can allow the compression of various files that are large in size. Moreover, it is used for archiving large files so that you can share the files easily in a small size. Further, it assists in compressing without affecting video quality. Similarly, it provides one-click access and it can compress any file type and it can allow the extraction of the compressed files as well. Henceforth, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, you can get files compressed files from this app to another directory on the PC. And the users can simply compress the files from various options and it offers white video encryption tools. For instance, it can also decompress the files that have been archived or compressed. Therefore, the users can convert the files as per requirements.

Benefits of WinZip Pro Key:

Further, it enables options for white and black encryption. On the other hand, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, this app is very useful for you to interchange personal details and information. In other words, this app helps in the management of file compression. However, this app archives, compress, decompress, and extract data files. For instance, with its help, you can edit, share, protect, and maintain archived files. Moreover, it comes with the latest version with modern style modified tools that are used for file unzipping. However, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, it can save more space in devices to create a big room for further file types and media files. For instance, the best things about the software are that it performs and offers factors that do not affect the file quality at all. Additionally, it gives 3 step methods in protecting the disk space in the PC and computer.

Importance of WinZip Pro:

Moreover, this app assists in the usage of substantial information measures over the Internet connection. Further, this app lets the users compress sound info, different documents, files, pictures, and videos to less size and volume. In other words, this software is the best which creates the possibilities for you to compress the mp4 and the mp3 documents. In addition, the users will not find any harm to their original files. Similarly, the program has a multi-user Interface which allows organizations and businesses in high-ranking dimensions. On the other hand, this creates a one-stop solution that makes the simple for each and every field to show the best results from it. Henceforth, it will demonstrate amazing work and the enterprises provide great compressing tools. In such a way it will fully offer accessibility to the difficult open, get, and store documents. Therefore, the system can control conventions and the systems as required according to the need for authoritative approaches.

WinZip Key

Functions of the WinZip Pro:

The most important functions of the software contain popular format support.  In other words, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, this app enables access to get information without assistance with any sort of password. UltraMon 3.4.0 crack serial keygen other words, this app facilitates the users to share and compress the files among a lot of the users and it will also keep it inside the PC for later usage. WinZip Torrent Additionally, you can activate the software through simple clicks without time wastage. Therefore, you can compress different files within minutes without any further damage to documents. Moreover, other file compressing tools does not guarantee the safety of document quality but this software offers the guarantee to keep it safe. In addition, it lets the zipping and unzipping process by simply identifying and searching the files. Further, the major role that this software plays is that it can provide more space room to store important data.

How the users use the software?

Similarly, most of the users use this software smoothly because they are already familiar with its working but some people may find it a bit confusing for first-time usage. Henceforth, you can use the help center to simply understand the software. In this method, you will not find anything hard for you. Similarly, you can open and compress files through the file explorer as well as you can extract the files. Therefore, you can extract documents as per basic needs. Moreover, the full activation is only achievable through the license codes.

Better Performance:

In addition, it contains greatly modified features with high-ranked performance. Further, the users will be able to find a comfortable room for their files on the PC. Moreover, this program will make large files small so that the PC will become light weighted.WinZip License Key In other words, on top of the list, the app has an innovative and user-friendly interface. However, it provides social file encryption too. Henceforth, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, you can simply encrypt the important files that you don’t want anyone else to access. Similarly, it allows better working in all device types and it does not bring any threat along with it. Similarly, just activate the latest tool with Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen help of registration codes that you will find at the bottom.

Useful Features:

  • Reduce Transfer Time: In other words, this app also helps in reducing transfer time because of light-weighted files and documents.
  • Lessen Email Attachment: Further, it lets you spit the zip and archived files in order to lessen the email attachment size.
  • Bank Level Encryption: In addition, it offers bank-level encryption to protect apps and data inside those apps.
  • Manage Files: Similarly, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, you can manage and access the files on clouds, networks, and PC.

What’s New?

  • Burn backups.
  • Upload backups.
  • Provides great compression speed.
  • Drop-box.
  • Latest Mp3 compression.
  • Can deal with address book.
  • Creates a single zip file.

System Needs:

  • Windows 7, 8, and 10.
  • RAM of 128 Mb.
  • 350 MB processor.
  • 4 MB of free space.
  • Fast Internet Connection.

WinZip Activation Code:

  • oZgZlEy4nwC-gk4E5-MrjHSKe1Py2XycQq
  • 0Dlo9NyKXjSh-JylSyct-16Kn7CXYsQKCP
  • aAdCw8thIrorL-eRAww-KKfH9kLLdUEDCn
  • o7OyvmwYwiM-MfvBSp-qkxcBCwrhyqAdId

WinZip Registration Code:

  • VoHYYLml-HcM38UtE-6IRfDPMqPr7B2fJ7
  • MUzfE0eK-n00qHkmJ-67ec1iHImJWnlKxH
  • mBC9kqdD-hqYgzbh5Lf-ho4WCSn6Tk1Pdy
  • i1v5Wsx6s-sWEybWS0-nkJCjh2N8WSejZE

WinZip Activation Code:

  • uPPLXnb8d4-TCy1jshH-W5AYFLAEikjFLT
  • qBaKDvHfmEb-HEr0NO-UOOtcxZYWLJGksg
  • R7gucrkFggUv–N8guY0-o7Xsjl3PUNX3bi
  • 8Oe3vXnTvoHSK-hxhSHhE-bMn3plN5N4Jp

How to install it?

  • Open the download site and click the download option.
  • Uninstall Old version.
  • Turn of virus protection.
  • Open patch files, drag and drop the patch keys.
  • Activate the software.
  • Finally, done.
  • Enjoy!

Mirror File


WinZip Pro is useful for zipping, Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen, unzipping, archiving, compressing, and decompressing the files. On the other hand, it will also allow file encryption.




Review Date

Reviewed Item

WinZip Crack

Author Rating

Software Name

WinZip Activation Code

Software Name

Window + Mac

Software Category

Zip File

Источник: []
Zip Code Book v5.4 crack serial keygen


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