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Greenleaf

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Greenleaf
Although members of the Greenleaf family run a Memphis megachurch, their business and personal lives are tainted with greed, adultery and other sins.
Starring:Merle Dandridge, Kim Hawthorne, Desiree Ross
This drama's premiere on the Oprah Winfrey Network drew 3.04 million viewers -- more than any other OWN show till then.
Watch A Time To Heal, <b>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</b>. Episode 1 of Season 1.

A funeral brings Grace back to her family's estate, where she learns an old secret is still being covered up at the expense of innocent victims.

Watch The Baptism. Episode 2 of Season 1.

An encounter at work gives Kevin second thoughts about starting a family. Grace is given a case file on Mac's accuser and begins to investigate.

Watch We Shall See Him as He Is. Episode 3 of Season 1.

During dinner with another couple, Kerissa has a realization. Grace gets a call from Danielle Turner and confesses to Noah why she left 20 years ago.

Watch Behind Closed Doors. Episode 4 of Season 1.

The mayor offers James an incentive for backing the city's police officers. Kerissa and Jacob go to couples therapy. Racy photos of Faith surface.

Watch Meaningful Survival. Episode 5 of Season 1.

Upon learning of Jacob's infidelity, James makes administrative changes. Grace helps her father minister to the parents of a seriously ill child.

Watch Good Morning, Calvary. Episode 6 of Season 1.

Grace is asked to fill in as preacher. A provocative invitation has an unexpected effect on Jacob and Kerissa. Charity looks for a new choir director.

Watch One Train May Hide Another. Episode 7 of Season 1.

Mac is drawn to a neglected young neighbor. An unwelcome visitor to the church upsets Mae. The tax auditors find a red flag.

Watch The Whole Book. Episode 8 of Season 1.

Grace gets access to Mac's computer. The grand jury decides whether to bring charges against David Nelson. Jacob pitches the TV deal to his father.

Watch The Broken Road. Episode 9 of Season 1.

Charity becomes suspicious of Kevin. Grace shows her father the evidence she's collected against Mac. Isabel senses Grace is hiding a secret from her.

Watch March to the Sea. Episode 10 of Season 1.

A gunshot forces Grace to make a difficult decision. Sophia's father comes to take her back to Phoenix, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Charity gives her husband an ultimatum.

Watch Men Like Trees Walking. Episode 11 of Season 1.

When James refuses to reinstate his son as a preacher, Jacob looks for work at Triumph. Ray seeks custody of Sophia. Mac asks James about redemption.

Watch Veni, Vidi, Vici. Episode 12 of Season 1.

Sophia testifies at the custody hearing and a ruling is reached. Basie meets with James to discuss Jacob's future. Kevin comes clean to his wife.

Watch What Are You Doing Here?. Episode 13 of Season 1.

Mae delivers a rousing speech that decides Calvary's next preacher, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Grace learns her grandfather was receiving hush money from Mac -- and why.

Watch A House Divided. Episode 1 of Season 2.

Jacob is blindsided at a Triumph Church groundbreaking event. Mavis falls off the wagon. Mae revisits her painful past to ask for a favor.

Watch Strange Bedfellows. Episode 2 of Season 2.

Jacob starts to see another side Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen Basie. Kevin tries being more assertive in his efforts to reconcile with his wife. Grace is told to fire Carlton.

Watch A Mother’s Love. Episode 3 of Season 2.

Mac's freedom affects his victims. Sophia's cousin puts her in a difficult position. A visit from Kevin's mother stirs up the Greenleaf household.

Watch Revival. Episode 4 of Season 2.

Kevin asks Charity to resume their marital relations. James finds a way to fight back against Basie. The fall revival has a profound effect on Sophia.

Watch Point of No Return. Episode 5 of Season 2.

Charity is offered a career opportunity and makes an announcement to her mother. After tensions with Kerissa come to a head, Tasha confides in her.

Watch The Royal Family. Episode 6 of Season 2.

Mae pressures Charity to reveal the cause of her marital troubles. Jacob asks Basie about a mysterious source of income on Triumph Church's books.

Watch Born to Trouble. Episode 7 of Season 2.

Grace gets a lead on another possible victim of Mac's abuse. Mac pulls some strings with the deputy mayor. Basie is beaten at his own game.

Watch And the Sparks Fly Upward. Episode 8 of Season 2.

Mac's girlfriend grows wary of his many calls. Zora finds herself in need of her cousin. Jacob makes Basie an offer to rescue him from financial ruin.

Watch The Bear. Episode 9 of Season 2.

Grace faces the aftermath of her fight with Mac. Kevin becomes angry and disillusioned with his Fortitude for Families support group.

Watch Call Not Complete. Episode 10 of Season 2.

Jacob heeds a calling to serve a cause. James lunches with a generous -- and sultry -- donor. Darius makes a decision about the New York job offer.

Watch Changing Season. Episode 11 of Season 2.

When her granddaughters are not accepted into a debutante society, Mae hunts for the person responsible. Charity reaches out to Carlton for support.

Watch House Rules. Episode 12 of Season 2.

Basie takes a controversial stand in his next sermon. Darius Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen why he doesn't go to church. Behind Jacob's back, Kerissa spills Basie's secrets.

Watch Silence and Loneliness. Episode 13 of Season 2.

James tries to blackmail Basie, whose creditors lose patience. Charity asks Jabari if he has feelings for her. Grace tells Darius a haunting secret.

Watch The Father's Will. Episode 14 of Season 2.

Aaron asks James to help his father accept his homosexuality. Mae learns Lionel kept a secret from her. Kerissa has her first day as first lady.

Watch Two by Two. Episode 15 of Season 2.

Mayoral candidate Skip Leonard asks for Jacob's backing. James and Mae suspect each other of infidelity. Kerissa notices Zora behaving strangely.

Watch The Pearl. Episode 16 of Season 2.

Rochelle hides an ulterior motive for cozying up to James. At the cotillion, a guest makes a scene. Mae's attempt to reconcile with Mavis backfires.

Watch Strange Currents, <b>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</b>. Episode 1 of Season 3.

One of Mac's misdeeds comes Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen to haunt James. Tasha influences Jacob in a management decision at Triumph. Kevin gets in the way of Charity's career.

Watch The Space Between. Episode 2 of Season 3.

Tasha persuades Jacob to make a pricey purchase. James and Mae invite lottery winner Clara to dinner. Grace learns her mother also has a dirty secret.

Watch Chain of Command. Episode 3 of Season 3.

A delivery forces Mae to evaluate past choices. A series of events leaves Charity feeling unwanted. Jacob learns one of Triumph's ushers is stealing.

Watch The Underdog. Episode 4 of Season 3.

Mae gets advice from old friend Maxine. James tries to win back his wife with Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen grand gesture. An argument between Zora and Sophia takes an ugly turn.

Watch Closing Doors. Episode 5 of Season 3.

A depressed Charity turns to pills. Rochelle pressures Tasha to trick Jacob into signing a document. Sophia suddenly develops a painful symptom.

Watch She Changes Everything. Episode 6 of Season 3.

Maxine visits Calvary and gets help for Charity. Sophia's faith in God is tested, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Mae and James break their news to their congregation.

Watch That Was Then. Episode 7 of Season 3.

Zora turns 18. Grace meets with accused murderer Coralie Hunter. Tasha gets Jacob to confide in her. James gives Rochelle a large sum to invest.

Watch Dea Abscondita. Episode 8 of Season 3.

Zora's parents try to take her home, but she has other plans. After bailing out Coralie, Grace is threatened by the DA. Jacob sets limits with Tasha.

Watch Runaway Train. Episode 9 of Season 3.

James gets grave news about a former friend, and questions his trust in Rochelle. Sophia reluctantly attends her grandfather's silver jubilee.

Watch The Promised Land. Episode 10 of Season 3.

Rochelle reveals a story about her past that leads Grace to investigate. Triumph's new accountant finds an irregularity. Zora gets exciting news.

Watch The End Is Near, <i>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</i>. Episode 11 of Season 3.

Both churches get a nasty surprise. Mae makes a confession to Maxine. Tasha asks to meet Jacob. Sophia catches Zora's boyfriend with another woman.

Watch Day of Reckoning. Episode 12 of Season 3.

Grace and Jacob hatch Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen plan to rescue key witness Tasha. Zora uses one of Isaiah's own tricks against him. A new pastor debuts at A Day with Lady Mae.

Watch The New Life. Episode 13 of Season 3.

A terrifying encounter puts Calvary within Mae's grasp, but Deacon Board leader Connie has other plans. Grace reveals Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen test results to her mother.

Watch Original Sin, <i>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</i>. Episode 1 of <i>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</i> 4.

Desperate to play their cards right, the Greenleafs attempt a united front against Harmony & Hope. But behind closed doors, bitter accusations fly.

Watch Did I Lose You?. Episode 2 of Season 4.

Bills come due as Connie tangles with Mae. Charity finds a way forward but glances back with guilt. Grace reveals devastating details to Noah.

Watch Visions and Dreams. Episode 3 of Season 4.

After the hurt comes the hope for healing as Grace faces A.J., and Mae learns how she’s perceived. Charity pushes back, and Zora makes a connection.

Watch A Common Enemy. Episode 4 of Season 4.

Bob asks Grace to take a small white congregation into the fold, but there's more going on under the surface. Sophia returns for a surprising reason.

Watch Unwanted. Episode 5 of Season 4.

Charity claps back but harbors misgivings. A.J. comes to church, but not in the way that would please Grace. Jacob's work with Dante makes the news.

Watch The Stranger. Episode 6 of Season 4.

The Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen comes out, but the Greenleafs' troubles are far from over: Charity spills, Kerissa cuts a deal, and A.J. reaches out from a rough spot.

Watch Reunited. Episode 7 of Season 4.

Amid the secrets and lies, Jacob confronts Charity while Sophia makes a discovery. James confides in the family, and Mae reaches her breaking point.

Watch Surprise!. Episode 8 of Season 4.

After Judee drops a bombshell, the Greenleafs marshal their forces. Mae engages both friends and foes at a party, but Kerissa has plans of her own.

Watch God's Justice. Episode 9 of Season 4.

The tables turn as Grace appeals to the deacons. Phil shows his hand, and James confronts Connie. Kerissa gets hers while Charity demands the truth.

Watch Gratitude. Episode 10 of Season 4.

After making a shocking announcement, Grace looks for answers. Kerissa comes clean, and Mae meets with Bob. Charity rides an emotional roller coaster.

Watch The First Day. Episode 1 of Season 5.

All things must pass: James and Grace witness the end of an era. Kerissa pressures Jacob. Charity got what she wanted -- and she’s utterly miserable.

Watch The Second Day. Episode 2 of Season 5.

The family rallies around A.J., but he isn’t ready to face the music. Mae calls out Charity. A hurt Jacob and enraged Kerissa try to come to terms.

Watch The Third Day. Episode 3 of Season 5.

Grace and Darius examine a new piece in the H&H puzzle. Noah receives a warm welcome while Sophia and Nikki face off in an inevitable confrontation.

Watch The Fourth Day. Episode 4 of Season 5.

Emotions run high as Mae calls out Kerissa and Charity comes for Judee. After A.J. makes his choice, Grace gets a lead on a way to stop H&H.

Watch The Fifth Day. Episode 5 of Season 5.

New beginnings rush into view: A celebration takes a troubling turn, causing Mae to step in. An answered prayer gives James a chance to bond with A.J.

Watch The Sixth Day. Episode 6 of Season 5.

A key figure emerges with critical information on Bob. Rochelle threatens James, leading Mae to question everything. Sophia reaches out for Zora.

Watch The Seventh Day. Episode 7 of Season 5.

Demolition day comes to Calvary, along with explosive revelations. A battle of wills kicks off, and news spreads of Bob’s political ambitions.

Watch Behold. Episode 8 of Season 5.

A heartbreaking loss shakes the Greenleafs to their core. Grace considers her next step as Mae and the church look back -- and forward -- with hope.

Merle DandridgeKim HawthorneDesiree RossLamman RuckerTye WhiteLynn WhitfieldDeborah Joy WinansKeith DavidLovie SimoneGregory Alan WilliamsOprah WinfreyRick FoxPatti LaBelleLetoya LuckettChevonne Hughes
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PM demands migrant fix

New minister drafted in to stop crossings amid ‘exasperation’ over rising numbers

Boris Johnson has ordered a cross-Whitehall review into the migrant crisis after being “exasperated” by his government’s failure to stem the numbers. The prime minister is concerned that there are still no viable policies to reduce the number of Channel crossings. Some 24,500 migrants.Boris Johnson has ordered a cross-Whitehall review into the migrant crisis after being “exasperated” by his government’s failure to stem the numbers. The prime minister is concerned that there are still no viable policies to reduce the number of Channel Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Some 24,500 migrants.Boris Johnson has ordered a cross-Whitehall review into the migrant crisis after being “exasperated” by his government’s.

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CORONAVIRUS

Boosters are key to keeping Britain safe from European surge

Booster jabs will stop Britain following Europe back into lockdown, ministers and their scientific advisers believe. Boris Johnson’s determination to avoid fresh coronavirus measures has been strengthened by data this week which showed that the effect of booster jabs is even greater than previously thought. Downing Street insisted yesterday.Booster jabs will stop Britain following Europe back into lockdown, ministers and their scientific advisers believe. Boris Johnson’s determination to avoid fresh coronavirus measures has been strengthened by data this week which showed that the effect Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen booster jabs is even greater than previously thought. Downing Street insisted yesterday.Booster jabs will stop Britain following Europe back into lockdown, ministers and their scientific advisers believe. Boris.

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Kenosha race protest killer acquitted of all charges

A white teenager accused of murdering two men during racially charged riots in the United States last year walked free yesterday when a jury found that he had acted in self-defence. Kyle Rittenhouse, now 18, shot three people, killing two, in the northern city of Kenosha, Wisconsin. He was acquitted on all charges.A white teenager accused of murdering two men during racially charged riots in the United States.A white teenager accused of murdering two men during racially charged riots in the United States.

Read the full story

Zoo charity lionizes the boss’s wife

When Victoria Aspinall was first taken to the sprawling animal park owned by her future husband, the arm of her white Burberry blouse was ripped clean off by an overly friendly gorilla. Unfazed by this encounter, the business strategist fell in.When Victoria Aspinall was first taken to the sprawling animal park owned by her future husband.When Victoria Aspinall was first taken to the sprawling animal park owned by her future husband.

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Let the AI tell you a story in the next chapter for audiobooks

Beware the audiobook narrator unable to convey bitterness or sarcasm. They may just be an Artificial Intelligence storyteller. Publishers are increasingly looking to deploy AI-enabled auto-narration of audiobooks and dispensing with the need for.Beware the audiobook narrator unable to convey bitterness or sarcasm. They may just be an.Beware the audiobook narrator unable to convey bitterness or sarcasm. They may just be an.

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SATURDAY INTERVIEW

‘Getting rid of the little farmers is fundamentally wrong. It’s insane’

James Rebanks winds his way up the valley in Matterdale beside the drystone walls, over streams, through flower-rich meadows and past his new hawthorn hedgerows and scrub, pointing out his prize Herdwick sheep and grazing Belted Galloway cattle as.James Rebanks winds his way up the valley in Matterdale beside the drystone walls, over streams.James Rebanks winds his way up the valley in Matterdale beside the drystone walls, over streams.

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Peat bog takes a small step towards world heritage status

A vast area of peat bog, lochs and pools in north Scotland is moving closer to being listed alongside the Grand Canyon and the Great Barrier Reef as a natural world heritage site. The Flow Country of Caithness and Sutherland successfully passed a.A vast area of peat bog, lochs and pools in north Scotland is moving closer to being listed.A vast area of peat bog, lochs and pools in north Scotland is moving closer to being listed.

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President Biden’s administration received a much-needed boost yesterday Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen his mammoth $1.75 trillion spending package cleared the first hurdle. A new poll suggested, however, that he is likely to lose control of Congress next year. It comes amid mounting reports of infighting in the White House and allegations that Kamala Harris, the vice-president, has been sidelined.President Biden’s administration received a much-needed boost yesterday as his mammoth $1.75.President Biden’s administration received a much-needed boost yesterday as his mammoth $1.75.

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Monaco’s Princess Charlene ‘being treated for deep fatigue’

Princess Charlene is being treated outside Monaco for emotional and physical exhaustion that has nothing to do with.Princess Charlene is being treated outside Monaco for emotional and physical exhaustion that has nothing to do with the state of her marriage, her husband, Prince Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, has said. Explaining the absence of the princess, 43, from Monaco’s national day commemorations today, Albert said that his wife had agreed at a.Princess Charlene is being treated outside Monaco for emotional and physical exhaustion that has nothing to do with the state.

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Tesla Roadster (first generation)

For Tesla's second sports car or its second generation, see Tesla Roadster (second generation).

Electric convertible sports car produced 2008–2012

Motor vehicle

Tesla Roadster
Roadster 2.5 windmills trimmed.jpg

Tesla Roadster Sport 2.5

ManufacturerTesla, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, Inc.
Also calledCode name: DarkStar[1]
Production2008–2012
AssemblyHethel, UK
Menlo Park, California, U.S.
Class
Body style2-door roadster
LayoutRear mid-motor, rear-wheel drive
RelatedLotus Elise
Vauxhall VX220
Lotus Exige
Tesla Roadster (second generation)
Electric motor3-phase 4-poleAC induction motor
  • 1.5 185 kW (248 hp), 270 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) *2.0, 2.5 215 kW (288 hp), 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) *2.5 Sport 215 kW (288 hp), 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen speed BorgWarner fixed gear (8.27:1 ratio)
Battery53 kWh lithium-ion at the pack level: 117 Wh/kg and 370 Wh/L) CAC (Capacity) approx. 160 Ah when new
Electric range393 km (244 mi) using EPA combined cycle
Plug-in chargingProprietary inlet, 16.8 kW (70 A 240 V) with HPWC outlet[5] and with the SAE J1772-2009 adapter,[6] adapters for domestic ACsockets
Wheelbase2,352 mm (92.6 in)
Length3,946 mm (155.4 in)
Width1,873 mm (73.7 in)
Height1,127 mm (44.4 in)
Curb weight1,305 kg Ragtag Racing Free Download Roadster (second generation)

The Tesla Roadster is a battery electric vehicle (BEV) sports car, based on the Lotus Elise chassis, that was produced by the electric car firm Tesla Motors (now Tesla, Inc.) in California from 2008 to 2012. The Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production all-electric car to travel more Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen 320 kilometres (200 mi) per charge.[7] It is also the first production car to be launched into deep space, carried by a Falcon Heavy rocket in a test flight on February 6, 2018.

Tesla sold about 2,450 Roadsters in over 30 countries,[8][9][10] and most of the last Roadsters were sold in Europe and Asia during the fourth quarter of 2012.[11] Tesla produced right-hand-drive Roadsters from early 2010.[12] The Roadster qualified for government incentives in several nations.[13][14]

According to the U.S. EPA, the Roadster can travel 393 kilometres (244 mi) on a single charge[15] of its lithium-ion battery pack, and can accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 or 3.9 seconds depending on the model. It has a top speed of 201 km/h (125 mph). The Roadster's efficiency, as of September 2008[update], was reported as 120 MPGe (2.0 L/100 km). It uses 135 Wh/km (21.7 kWh/100 mi) battery-to-wheel, and has an efficiency of 88% on average.[16]

History[edit]

Prototypes of the car were officially revealed to the public on July 19, 2006, in Santa Monica, California, at a 350-person invitation-only event held in Barker Hangar at Santa Monica Airport.[17]

The San Francisco International Auto Show, held on November 18–26, 2006, was the Tesla Roadster's first auto show.[citation needed]

It was featured in Time in December 2006 as the recipient of the magazine's "Best Inventions 2006—Transportation Invention" award.[18] The first "Signature One Hundred" set of fully equipped Roadsters sold out in less than Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen weeks, the Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen hundred sold out by October 2007 and general production began on March 17, 2008.[citation needed]

The first Tesla Roadster was delivered in February 2008 to Tesla co-founder, chairman and product architect Elon Musk. The company produced 500 similar vehicles through June 2009. In July 2009, Tesla began production of its 2010 model-year Roadster—the first major product upgrade.[19] Simultaneously, Tesla began producing the Roadster Sport, the first derivative of Tesla's proprietary, patented powertrain. The car accelerates from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 seconds, compared to 3.9 seconds for the standard Roadster. Changes for the 2010 model-year cars included:[20]

  • An upgraded interior and push-button gear selector, including "executive interior" of exposed carbon fiber and premium leather, and clear-coat carbon fiber body accents.
  • Locking, push-button glove box wrapped in leather.
  • A centrally mounted video display screen to monitor real-time data, including estimated range, power regenerated, and the number of barrels of oil saved. This screen is visible to the driver and passenger.
  • Adjustable, custom-tuned suspension. The shock Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen response and anti-sway bars are manually adjustable.
  • More powerful and immediate heating, ventilation and air-conditioning.
  • More efficient motor and hand-wound stator. The increase in efficiency allows the motor to deliver higher peak power.
  • A suite of sound-deadening measures to dramatically reduce noise, vibration and harshness. For instance, engineers added pellets to a member of the chassis side rail. These pellets expand by 50 times original volume during the adhesive heating cycle to eliminate rattles.

All of these features, except for the motor, were available either as standard or as add-on option for the non-sport model.

Beginning mid-March 2010, Tesla, in an effort to show off the practicality of its electric cars, sent one of its Roadsters around the world. Starting at the Geneva auto show, the Roadster completed its journey upon its arrival in Paris on September 28, 2010.[21]

In July 2010, Tesla introduced the "Roadster 2.5", the latest update of the Roadster.[22] New features in Roadster 2.5 include:

  • A new look, which included a new front fascia with diffusing vents, and rear diffuser reflecting the future of Tesla design
  • Directional forged wheels available in both silver and black
  • New seats with improved comfort, larger more supportive bolsters and a new lumbar support system
  • Power control hardware that enables spirited driving in exceptionally hot climates
  • An optional 7" touchscreen display with back-up camera
  • Improved interior sound reduction including new front fender liner material to make the cabin quieter

At the time, the US$112,000 Roadster was the most expensive single prize ever offered, though not won, on The Price Is Right, in a playing of Golden Road on April 22, 2010 for Earth Day.[23]

A Roadster was used as a promotional tool for a Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen power electricity company in 2012.[24][25]

Tesla produced the Roadster until January 2012, when its supply of Lotusgliders ran out, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, as its contract with Lotus Cars for 2,500 gliders expired at the end of 2011.[9][26][27][28] Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011.[29][30] The next generation will not be based on the Lotus gliders but instead on a shortened version of the architecture developed for the Tesla Model S.[31][32] Featuring new options and enhanced components, the 2012 Tesla Roadster was sold in limited numbers only in Europe, Asia, and Australia. 98lite Millennium Edition v4.0 crack serial keygen U.S. exemption for not having special two-stage passenger airbags expired for cars made after the end of 2011 so the last Roadsters could not be sold in the American market.[33][34] Fifteen Final Edition Roadsters were produced to close the manufacturing cycle of Tesla's first electric car.[35]

Tesla announced an optional upgrade to current Roadsters, the Roadster 3.0, in December 2014. It offered a new battery pack from LG Chem[36] increasing capacity by 50% to 70 kWh, a new aero kit designed to reduce drag, and new tires with lower rolling resistance.[37][38] As of December 2020, the Roadster 3.0 upgrade package has been removed from Tesla's website.[citation needed]

Development[edit]

See also: History of Tesla Inc.

The Roadster was developed by Tesla to mass-produce AC Propulsion's tzero concept car.

After Martin Eberhard sold NuvoMedia to TV Guide, he wanted a sports car with high mileage, but could not find one. His battery experience with the Rocket eBook inspired him to develop an electric car.[39] The production idea was conceived by Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning who incorporated Tesla Motors in Delaware on July 1, 2003, to pursue the idea commercially.[40] South African-born entrepreneur Elon Musk took an active role within the company starting in 2004, including investing US$7.5 million, overseeing Roadster product design from the beginning, and greatly expanding Tesla's long-term strategic sales goals by using the sports car to fund development of mainstream vehicles.[41][42] Musk became Tesla's Chairman of the Board in April 2004 and had helped recruit JB Straubel as chief technology officer in March 2004.[43] Musk received the Global Green 2006 product design award for the design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev,[44] and he received the 2007 Index Design award for the design of the Tesla Roadster.[45]

Before Tesla had developed the Roadster's proprietary powertrain, they borrowed an AC PropulsionTzero vehicle as a test mule and converted from lead acid AGM batteries to lithium ion cells which substantially increased the range, reduced weight, and boosted 0-60 performance. Tesla then licensed AC Propulsion's EV power system design and reductive charging patent which covers integration of the charging electronics with the inverter, thus reducing mass, complexity, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen cost. However, Tesla was dissatisfied with how the motor and transmission worked in the chassis.[46] Tesla then designed and built its own power electronics, motor, and other drivetrain components that incorporated this licensed technology from AC Propulsion.[47][48][49] Given the extensive redevelopment of the vehicle, Tesla Motors no longer licenses any proprietary technology from AC Propulsion. The Roadster's powertrain is unique.[50]

On July 11, 2005, Tesla and British sports car maker Lotus entered an agreement about products and services based on the Lotus Elise, where Lotus provided advice on designing and developing a vehicle as well as producing Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen assembled vehicles,[51] and amended in 2009,[52] helped with basic chassis development. The Roadster has a parts overlap of roughly 6% with the Lotus Elise,[53] a 2-inch-longer wheelbase, and a slightly stiffer chassis according to Eberhard.[54] Tesla's designers chose to construct the body panels using resin transfer moldedcarbon fiber composite to minimize weight; this choice makes the Roadster one of the least expensive cars with an entirely carbon fiber skin.[53]

Several prototypes of the Tesla Roadster were produced from 2004 through 2007. Initial studies were done in two "test mule" vehicles based on Lotus Elises equipped with all-electric drive systems. Ten engineering prototypes (EP1 through EP10) which led to many minor changes were then built and tested in late 2006 and early 2007. Tesla then produced at least 26 validation prototypes which were delivered beginning in March 2007.[55] These final revisions were endurance and crash tested in preparation for series production.[56]

In August 2007, Martin Eberhard was replaced by an interim CEO, Michael Marks.[57] Marks accepted the temporary position while a recruitment was undertaken. In December 2007, Ze'ev Drori became the CEO and president of Tesla. In October 2008, Musk succeeded Drori as CEO. Drori became vice chairman and left the company in December. In January 2008, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) announced that it would grant a waiver of the advanced air bag rule[58] noting that the Tesla Roadster already includes standard air bags; similar waivers have been granted to many other small volume manufacturers as well, including Lotus, Ferrari, and Bugatti.[59][60][61] Tesla delivered its first production car in February 2008 to Musk.

Tesla announced in early August 2009 that Roadster sales had resulted in overall corporate profitability for the month of July 2009, earning US$1 million on revenue of US$20 million.[62]

Tesla, which signed a production contract with Group Lotus in 2007 to produce "gliders" (complete cars minus electric powertrain) for the Roadster, announced in early 2010 that Roadster production would continue until early 2012. Starting one year prior to the end of the contract, Tesla put a hiatus on new orders to allow time for tooling changes at Lotus's assembly plant in the UK.[63]

Several years later in 2018, Musk would go on to say that using the Lotus Elise as a base for the Roadster was a poor strategy. This is because the Elise was incompatible with the intended AC Propulsion technology, and was modified so extensively only 7% of the original Elise remained in the final production version.[64]

Production[edit]

Interior of Roadster 2.5 from July 2010

Tesla's cumulative production of the Roadster reached 1,000 cars in January 2010.[65] The Roadster is considered an American car though many carry Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen Vehicle Identification Number beginning with the letter "S" which is the designation for the United Kingdom.[66] Some however carry a number starting with "5" appropriate to the US. Parts were sourced from around the world. The body panels came from French supplier Sotira. These were sent from France to Hethel, U.K., where Tesla contracted with Lotus to build the Roadster's unique chassis.[67][68] The Roadster shares roughly 6% of its components with the Lotus Elise; shared components include the windshield, air bags, some tires, some dashboard parts, and suspension components. The Roadster's single-speed gearbox was made in Detroit to Tesla's specifications by Auburn Hills, Michigan-based supplier BorgWarner. Brakes and airbags were made by Siemens in Germany, and some crash testing was conducted at Siemens as well.[69] 30-40% of components were sourced from Taiwan.[70]

For Roadsters bound for customers in North America, the chassis was then sent to Menlo Park, California, for final assembly, and for Roadsters bound for customers in Europe or elsewhere outside of North America, the chassis was sent to a facility at Wymondham near Hethel, for final assembly. At these final assembly locations, Tesla employees installed the entire powertrain, which consisted of the battery pack, power electronics module, gearbox and motor. Tesla also performed rigorous "pre-delivery inspection" on every car before customers took ownership.[citation needed]

Tesla ordered 2,500 gliders from Lotus, which ended supplies in December 2011 when their contract expired.[27][28] Tesla ended production of the Roadster in January 2012.[26]

Timeline[edit]

Subsequent to completion of production car number one at Hethel, the company announced problems with transmission reliability. The development transmission, with first gear enabled to accelerate 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 4 seconds, was reported to have a life expectancy of as low as only a few thousand miles. Tesla's first two transmission suppliers were unable to produce transmissions, in quantity, that could withstand the gear-shift requirements of the high torque, high rpm electric motor. In December 2007, Tesla announced plans to ship the initial Roadsters with the transmissions locked into second gear to provide 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) acceleration in 5.7 seconds. The first production car was not delivered with this interim solution; P1 has both transmission gears enabled. According to the plan, the initial transmissions were to be swapped out under warranty when the finalized transmission, power electronics module (PEM), and cooling system became available. The EPA range of the car was also restated downward from 394 to 356 km (245 to 221 mi). The downward revision was attributed to an error in equipment calibration at the laboratory that conducted the original test.[71][72][73]

  • During the first two months of production, Tesla produced a total of three Roadsters (P3/VINF002, P4/VINF004, and P5/VINF005). Production car # 1 (P1) and P2 were built prior to the start of regular series production, which began March 17, 2008.[74]
  • By September 10, 2008, Tesla had delivered 27 of the cars to customers. It was also reported that a newer, better transmission had been developed and that production of the car was hoped to reach 20 per week by December 2008, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, and 40 per week by March 2009.[75] Over the next 20 days, however, only three more cars had been delivered to customers which brought the total to 30 as of September 30, 2008.[76]
  • By November 19, 2008, more than 70 of the cars had been delivered to customers.[77]
  • By December 9, 2008, the 100th car had been delivered.[78]
  • By February 11, 2009, 200 Roadsters had been produced.[79]
  • By April 2, 2009, 320 Roadsters had been delivered.[80]
  • In May 2009, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, Tesla issued a safety recall for all 345 of its Roadsters that were manufactured before April 22, 2009. Tesla sent technicians to customers' homes to tighten the rear, inner hub flange bolts. Tesla told customers that without this adjustment, the driver could lose control of the car and crash. The problem originated at the Lotus assembly line that builds the Roadster and Lotus also recalled some of its own vehicles. Tesla reminded customers that millions of cars are recalled every year.[81][82]
  • By the end of May 2009, the 500th Roadster had been delivered.[83]
  • Tesla made its first profit ever in July 2009, when it shipped 109 vehicles, the most in a single month at that time.[84]
  • By September 15, 2009, 700 Roadsters had been delivered.[85]
  • Tesla announced on January 13, 2010, that it had produced its 1,000th Roadster. The company had delivered vehicles to customers in 43 states and 21 countries worldwide.[86] In 2009 Tesla began taking orders from customers in Canada, and Canadian deliveries began in February 2010.[87][88]
  • In January 2010, Tesla began producing its first right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK and Ireland. The 2010 model-year right-hand-drive Roadster included a suite of unique noise-reduction materials and an upgraded sound system. The Roadster started at £86,950 and cost about 1.5p per mile.
  • On January 29, 2010, in a Form S-1 filing of its preliminary prospectus with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the company stated that it would halt production of the Roadster in 2011 and replace it with a new model which would not be introduced until 2013 at the earliest: ".we do not plan to sell our current generation Tesla Roadster after 2011 due to planned tooling changes at a supplier for the Tesla Roadster, and we do not currently plan to begin selling our next-generation Tesla Roadster until at least one year after the launch of the Model S, which is not expected to be in production until 2012."[89][90][91] The Model S was released in June 2012.[92]
  • On March 16, 2010, Tesla announced that it had "negotiated agreements with key suppliers that will increase total Roadster production by 40 percent and extend sales into 2012",[93] also indicating that it would expand into the Asian and Australian markets by 2011.[93]
  • On December 2, 2010, Tesla had delivered more than 1,400 Roadsters.[94]
  • On September 28, 2011, Tesla delivered its 100th Roadster in Switzerland.[95]
  • Production ended in January 2012 and was no longer available for sale the U.S. after December 2011.[26]
  • More than 2,418 units were sold worldwide through September 2012. The remaining cars were available for sale only in Europe and Asia.[9][10] Most of the remaining Roadsters were sold during the fourth quarter of 2012.[11][35][96]
  • In 2015, it was announced that a successor to the Roadster would debut in 2019.[97]
  • In 2016, Tesla began selling a battery upgrade from 53 kWh to 80 kWh.[98][99][100]
  • In 2017, it was announced that a successor to the Roadster would debut in 2020.[101]

Special final edition[edit]

Tesla produced a special edition of 15 Final Edition Roadsters to close the production cycle of the electric car. The 15 special-edition cars were sold in each of the three sales regions, North America, Europe and Asia, and five units were allocated to each. The Final Edition Roadster did not have any performance modifications, but featured sporting atomic red paint, a duo of Staad Pro v8i SS6 Crack Key + Activation Code {Latest Version} silver stripes on its hood and rear clamshell, and exclusive anthracitealuminum wheels.[35]

Specifications[edit]

Motor[edit]

Tesla Roadster with hood and trunk open

The Roadster is powered by a 3-phase, 4-pole, induction electric motor with a maximum output power of 185 kW (248 hp).[102] Its maximum torque of 200 lb⋅ft (270 N⋅m) is immediately available and remains constant from 0 to 6,000 rpm;[103] nearly instantaneous torque is a characteristic of electric motors and offers one of the biggest performance differences from internal combustion engines. The motor is air-cooled and does not need a liquid cooling system.[104][105]

The Sport model introduced during the Jan 2009 Detroit Auto Show includes a motor with a higher density, hand-wound stator that produces a maximum of 288 hp (215 kW).[106] Both motors are designed for rotational speeds of up to 14,000 rpm, and the regular motor delivers a typical efficiency of 88%[16] or 90%; 80% at peak power. It weighs less than 70 pounds (32 kg).[107]

Transmission[edit]

Starting in September 2008 Tesla selected BorgWarner to manufacture gearboxes and began equipping all Transmac torrent Archives with a single speed, fixed gear gearbox (8.2752:1) with an electrically actuated parking pawl mechanism and a mechanical lubrication pump.[15]

The company previously worked with several companies, including XTrac and Magna International, to find the right automatic transmission, but a two-gear solution proved to be too challenging. This led to substantial delays in production. At the "Town Hall Meeting" with owners in December 2007, Tesla announced plans to ship the initial 2008 Roadsters with their interim Magna two-speed direct shift manual transmissions locked into second gear, limiting the performance of the car to less than what was originally Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen (0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 5.7 seconds instead of the announced 4.0 seconds). Tesla also announced it would upgrade those transmissions under warranty when the final transmission became available.[71][73][108] At the "Town Hall Meeting" with owners on January 30, 2008, Tesla Motors described the planned transmission upgrade as a single-speed gearbox with a drive ratio of 8.27:1 combined with improved electronics and motor cooling that retain the acceleration from 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in under 4 seconds and an improved motor limit of 14,000 rpm to retain the 201 km/h (125 mph) top speed.[109] The upgraded system also improved the maximum torque from 270 to 380 N⋅m (200 to 280 lb⋅ft) and improves the Roadster's quarter mile times.[citation needed]

Gear selector[edit]

In the interior the gear selector is similar to a push-button automatic with buttons labeled P, R, N and Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen while some earlier models have a gear lever similar to that in cars with manual transmission.[citation needed]

Performance[edit]

The Roadster's 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) acceleration time is 3.9 seconds for the Standard model and 3.7 seconds for the 2010 V2.5 Sport, which Motor Trend confirmed in the first independent, instrumented testing of the V2.5 Sport model. The magazine also recorded a 0-to-1⁄4-mile (0.00 to 0.40 km) time of 12.6 seconds at 165.1 km/h (102.6 mph).[110] Tesla said the top speed is electronically limited to 201 km/h (125 mph). Tesla claims it has a weight of 1,305 kg (2,877 lb), a drag coefficient of Cd=0.35–0.36[111] and a rolling resistance of Crr=0.011.[38]

Tesla began delivering the higher performance version of the Roadster in July 2009. The Roadster Sport has adjustable dampers and a new hand-wound motor, capable of 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 seconds.[112] Scotty Pollacheck, a high-performance driver for Killacycle, drove a 2010 Tesla Roadster Sport at the Wayland Invitational Drag Race in Portland, Oregon, in July 2009. He did a quarter-mile (~400 m) in dry conditions in 12.643 seconds, setting a new record in the National Electric Drag Racing Association among the SP/A3 class of vehicles.[113] The EPA combined range Need for speed Undercover Undercover crack serial keygen distance traveled between charges) measured in February 2008 for early production Roadsters was 372 km (231 mi) city, 360 km (224 mi) highway, and 365 km (227 mi) combined (city/highway).[114] In August 2008, additional testing with the newer Powertrain 1.5 resulted in an EPA combined range of 393 km (244 mi).[15] The vehicle set a new distance record when it completed the 388-kilometre (241 mi) Rallye Monte Carlo d'Energies Alternatives with 58 km (36 mi) left on the charge.[115] A Roadster drove around the world (although flying as cargo over oceans) in 2012,[116] and repeated it in 80 days with other electric cars in 2016.[117]

Simon Hackett and Emilis Prelgauskas broke the distance record for an electric vehicle, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, driving 501 km (311 mi) from Alice Springs to Marla, South Australia, in Simon's Tesla Roadster. The car had about 4.8 km (3.0 mi) of range left when the drive was completed.[118]

Battery system[edit]

An electrical plug of the Tesla Roadster Sport

The rear side of a Tesla Roadster battery pack

The charging screen of a Tesla Roadster Sport

Tesla refers to the Roadster's battery pack as the Energy Storage System or ESS. The 450 kg (992 lb) ESS contains 6,831 lithium ion cells arranged into 11 "sheets" connected in series; each sheet contains 9 "bricks" connected in series; each "brick" contains 69 cells connected in parallel (11S 9S 69P). The cells are of the 18650 form factor commonly found in laptop batteries. Sources disagree[119] on the exact type of Li-Ion cells—GreenCar says lithium cobalt oxide (LiCo), while researchers at DTU/INESC Porto state lithium manganese oxide (LMO).[120] LiCo has higher reaction energy during thermal runaway than LMO.[121]

The pack is designed to prevent catastrophic cell failures from propagating to adjacent cells (thermal runaway), even when the cooling system is off.[122] Coolant is pumped continuously through the ESS both when the car is running and when the car is turned off if the pack retains more than a 90% charge. The coolant pump draws 146 watts.[56][123][124][125] The cooling and battery management system keeps the temperatures and voltages within specific limits.[126]

A full recharge to 53 kWh requires about 3½ hours using the High Power Connector which supplies 70-amp, 240-volt electricity.[127][128]

Tesla said in February 2009 that the ESS had expected life span of seven years/160,000 km (100,000 mi), and began selling pre-purchase battery replacements for about one third of the battery's price today, with the replacement to be delivered after seven years. Tesla says the ESS retains 70% capacity after five years and 80,000 km (50,000 mi) of driving, assuming 16,000 km (10,000 mi) driven each year. A July 2013 study found that after 160,000 km (100,000 mi), Roadster batteries still had 80%–85% capacity and the only significant factor is mileage (not temperature).[129]

Tesla announced plans to sell the battery system to TH!NK and possibly others through its Tesla Energy Group division. The TH!NK plans were put on hold by interim CEO Michael Marks in September 2007.[130][131][132] TH!NK now obtains its lithium-ion batteries from Enerdel.[citation needed]

Recharging[edit]

The Roadster uses a proprietary charging connector, although Tesla Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen a mobile adapter that enables recharging with an SAE J1772-2009 connector.[6] The vehicle can be recharged using:[133]

  • A wall-mounted 208–240 V, 70 A maximum current Home Connector. This appears to be an OEM version of the TS-70 charging station from ClipperCreek.[134]
  • A portable 120–240 V, 40 A maximum current Universal Mobile Connector cable that can plug into a NEMA 14–50 receptacle and other 240 V receptacles using adapters.
  • A portable 120 V, 15 A maximum current Spare Mobile Connector cable that plugs into a standard North American domestic socket.

Charging times vary depending on the ESS's state-of-charge, the available voltage, and the available circuit breaker amp rating (current). In a best case scenario using a 240 V charger on a 90 A circuit breaker, Tesla documents a recharging rate of 90 km (56 mi) of range for each hour charging; a complete recharge from empty would require just under four hours. The slowest charging rate using a 120 V outlet on a 15 A circuit breaker would add 8.0 km (5 mi) of range for each hour charging; a complete recharge from empty would require 48 hours.[135]

Technical data[edit]

Tesla Roadster[136]Tesla Roadster ("P1")[137] 1.5 Standard Tesla Roadster 2.0[138]Tesla Roadster 2.5 base Tesla Roadster 2.5 Sport[139]Tesla Roadster R80 (3.0) upgrade
Introduced 2006 2007 2009 2010 2010 2014
Transmission 2 forward speeds + reverse (by reversing the motor)
  • 1st gear: Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen gear: 2.17:1Reverse by reversing the motor (speed electronically limited)
  • Final drive: 3.41:1
Single speed BorgWarner fixed gear (8.27:1 ratio)
Power 185 kW (248 hp) 185 kW (248 hp) 215 kW (288 hp) 215 kW (288 hp) 215 kW (288 hp) 215 kW (288 hp)
Torque 244 N⋅m (180 lb⋅ft) 370 N⋅m (273 lb⋅ft) 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) 380 or 400 N⋅m (280 or 295 lb⋅ft)
Battery 53kWh 53kWh 53kWh 53kWh 53kWh 80kWh
Range 320 to 400 km (200 to 250 mi) 372 km (231 mi) 393 km (244 mi) 393 km (244 mi) 393 km (244 mi) 640 km (400 mi)
Cd0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.31
0–100 km/h

(62 mph)

around four seconds

5.7 Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen (limited due to durability)

4.0 sec 3.9 sec 3.9 sec 3.7 sec 3.7 sec
Curb weight (kg) / (lb)

All fluids, 50% fuel

1,305 kg (2,877 lb) 1,237 kg (2,727 lb) 1,237 kg (2,727 lb) 1,237 kg (2,727 lb) 1,237 kg (2,727 lb)
Top speed over 130 mph (210 km/h) 201 km/h (125 mph) 201 km/h (125 mph) 201 km/h (125 mph) 201 km/h (125 mph) 201 km/h (125 mph)
Base price  $80,000-$120,000 $98,950 $109,000 $110,950 $128,500 Car+ $29,000

Energy efficiency[edit]

In June 2006, Tesla reported the Roadster's battery-to-wheel efficiency as 110 Wh/km (17.7 kWh/100 mi) on an unspecified driving cycle—either a constant 97 km/h (60 mph)) or SAE J1634 test—and stated a charging efficiency of 86% for an overall plug-to-wheel efficiency of 128 Wh/km (20.5 kWh/100 mi).[49][140][141]

Evolution of the Roadster's plug-to-wheel efficiency (smaller values indicate better efficiency)

In March 2007, Tesla reported the Roadster's efficiency on the EPA highway cycle as "135 mpg [U.S.] equivalent, per the conversion rate used by the EPA" or 133 Wh/km (21.5 kWh/100 mi) battery-to-wheel and 155 Wh/km (24.9 kWh/100 mi) plug-to-wheel.[142][143][145] The official U.S. window sticker of the 2009 Tesla Roadster showed an EPA rated energy consumption of 32 kWh/100 mi in city and 33 kWh/100 mi on the highway, equivalent to 105 mpg city and 102 mpg highway.[146][147] The EPA rating for on board energy efficiency for electric vehicles before 2010 was expressed as kilowatt-hour per 100 miles (kWh/100 mi).[148][149] Since November 2010, with the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt, EPA began using a new metric, miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The Roadster was never officially rated by the EPA in MPGe.[150][151]

In August 2007, Tesla dynamometer testing of a validation prototype on the EPA combined cycle yielded a range of 356 km (221 mi) using 149 Wh/km ({{kWh 23.9}/100 mi) battery-to-wheel and 209 Wh/km (33.6 kWh/100 mi) plug-to-wheel.[71][152]

In February 2008, Tesla reported improved plug-to-wheel efficiency after testing a validation prototype car at an EPA-certified location. Those tests yielded a range of 350 km (220 mi) and a plug-to-wheel efficiency of 199 Wh/km (32.1 kWh/100 mi).[153][154]

In August 2008, Tesla reported on testing with the new, single-speed gearbox and upgraded electronics of powertrain 1.5 which yielded an EPA range of 393 km (244 mi) and an EPA combined cycle, plug-to-wheel efficiency of 174 Wh/km (28 kWh/100 mi).[155]

Roadster being tested through a driving cycle at Argonne National Laboratory's two-wheel dynamometer. These tests helped researchers develop test procedures to evaluate fuel efficiencyin electric vehicles in 2010

In 2007, the Roadster's battery-to-wheel motor efficiency was reported as 88%[16] to 90% on average and 80% at peak power.[156] For comparison, internal combustion engines have a tank-to-wheel efficiency of about 15%.[157] Taking a more complete picture including the cost of energy drawn from its source, Tesla reports that their technology, assuming electricity generated F-Secure Internet Security 18.0 Crack Key + Serial Number Free 2021 natural gas-burning power plants, has a high well-to-wheel efficiency of 1.14 km per megajoule, compared to 0.202 km/MJ for gasoline-powered sports cars, 0.478 km/MJ for gasoline-powered commuter cars, 0.556 km/MJ for hybrid cars, and 0.348 km/MJ for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.[141][158]

Petroleum-equivalent efficiency[edit]

See also: electric car § Comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs)

As the Roadster does not use gasoline, petroleum efficiency (MPG, L/100 km) cannot be measured directly but instead is calculated using one of several equivalent methods:

A number comparable to the typical Monroney sticker's "pump-to-wheel" fuel efficiency can be calculated based on regulations from the DOE and its energy content for a U.S. gallon of gasoline of 33,705 Wh⁄gal (also called the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of gasoline):[159][160]

{\displaystyle {\frac {33705\,{\frac {\mathrm {Wh} }{\mathrm {gal_{ge}} }}}{135\,{\frac {\mathrm {Wh} }{\mathrm {km} }}\times {\frac {1.6\,\mathrm {km} }{\mathrm {mi} }}}}\times 77.6\%{\mathrm {_{charging\ eff.}} }=120\,\mathrm {mpg_{ge}} =1.95{\frac <b>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</b> {L_{ge}} }{100\,\mathrm {km} }}}

For CAFE regulatory purposes, the DOE's full petroleum-equivalency equation combines the primary energy efficiencies of the US electric grid and the well-to-pump path with a "fuel content factor" that quantifies the value of conservation, scarcity of fuels, and energy security in the US.[159] This combination yields a factor of 82,049 Wh⁄gal in the above equation and a regulatory fuel efficiency of 293 mpggeCAFE.

Tesla Roadster 2.5 charging from a conventional outlet

Recharging with electricity from the average US grid, the factor changes to 12,307 Wh⁄galUS[159] to remove the "fuel content factor" = 1⁄0.15 and the above equation yields a full-cycle energy-equivalency of 44.0 mpgge full-cycle. For Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen comparisons, the sticker or "pump-to-wheel" value from a gasoline-fueled vehicle must be multiplied by the fuel's "well-to-pump" efficiency; the DOE regulation specifies a "well-to-pump" efficiency of 83% for gasoline.[159] The Prius's sticker[161] 46 mpg‑US (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg‑imp), for example, converts to a full-cycle energy-equivalent of 38.2 mpgfull-cycle.[159]

Recharging with electricity generated by newer, 58% efficiency CCGT power plants,[162] changes the factor to 21,763 Wh⁄gal[159] in the above equation and yields a fuel efficiency of 77.7 mpgge.

Recharging with non-fossil fuel electricity sources such as hydroelectric, solar power, wind or nuclear, the petroleum equivalent efficiency can be even higher as fossil fuel is not directly used in refueling.[163]

Service[edit]

Whereas vehicles with internal combustion engines require more frequent service for oil changes and routine maintenance on engine components and other related systems, Tesla's website recommends the owner bring the vehicle in for service "once a year or every 12,000 miles".[164] For other concerns with vehicles, Tesla created a "mobile service unit" that dispatches company-trained technicians to customers' homes or offices in case the owner is experiencing problems. Tesla charges the customer according to the distance the service unit needs to travel: one US dollar per mile roundtrip with a 100-dollar minimum.[164] Technicians drive company vans equipped with numerous tools and testing equipment to do "in the field" repairs, enhancements and software upgrades. Tesla debuted this "house call" approach in the spring of 2009, when the company announced a recall due to a manufacturing problem in the Lotus assembly plant, which also affected the Lotus Elise and other models from the British sports car maker.[165]

The first Tesla service center, in Los Angeles, California, was opened on Santa Monica Boulevard on May 1, 2008.[166] Tesla publicly opened their second showroom and service area in Menlo Park, California on July 22, 2008. The Menlo Park location is also the final assembly area for Tesla Roadsters. Tesla also operates service centers in New York City, Miami, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, Chicago, and Seattle.[citation needed]

In 2007, Tesla announced plans to build additional service centers over the following few years to support sales of its next vehicle, the Model S sports sedan. This included an additional 15 service centers in United States major metropolitan locations.[167] Possible locations for sales and service locations in Europe were announced in a letter to customers in May 2008.[168]

Recalls[edit]

As of May 2017[update], Tesla has issued two product safety recalls for the Roadster.[169]

In May 2009, Tesla issued Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen recall for 345 Roadsters manufactured before April 22, 2009. Tesla sent technicians to customers' homes to tighten the rear, inner hub flange bolts. Using wording from the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, Tesla told customers that without this Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, the driver could lose control of the car.[170] The problem originated at the Lotus assembly line, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen the Roadster glider was built. Lotus also recalled some Elise and Exige vehicles for the same reason.[171]

On October 1, 2010, Tesla issued a second product safety recall in the US affecting 439 Roadsters, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The recall involved the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable from a redundant back-up system. The recall followed an incident where the low voltage auxiliary cable in a vehicle chafed against the edge of a carbon fiber panel, causing a short, smoke and a possible fire behind the right front headlamp. This issue was limited to the 12V low-voltage auxiliary cable and did not involve the main battery pack or main power system.[172]

Reviews[edit]

Tesla Roadster reviews can be grouped in two main categories: older reviews of "validation prototypes" (2006–2008), before Tesla began serial production and customer deliveries, and reviews on cars in Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen production (2008–2010).[citation needed]

The global online auto review site Autoguide.com tested Tesla's fourth-generation car in October 2010. Autoguide editor Derek Kreindler said "The Tesla Roadster 2.5 S is a massively impressive vehicle, more spacecraft than sports car. Theories like global warming, peak oil and rising oil prices should no longer bring heart palpitations to car fans. The Tesla shows just how good zero-emissions "green" technology can be. Quite frankly, getting into a normal car at the end of the test drive was a major letdown. The whirr of the engine, the shove in the backside and the little roadster that seems to pivot around you is replaced by a grunting, belching, feedback-free driving experience". He continues on that "but for a $100,000 car, it could use some work" complaining of purposefully cheap work.[173]

In the March 2010 print edition of British enthusiast magazine EVO (p. 120), editor Richard Meaden was the first to review the all-new right-hand-drive version of the Roadster. He said the car had "serious, instantaneous muscle". "With so much torque from literally no revs the acceleration punch is wholly alien. Away from traffic lights you'd murder anything, be it a 911 Turbo, GT-R or 599, simply because while they have to mess about with balancing revs and clutch, or fiddle with launch controls and invalid warranties, all you have to do is floor the throttle and wave goodbye".

In December 2009, The Wall Street Journal editor Joseph White conducted an extended test-drive and determined that "you can have enormous fun within the legal speed limit as you whoosh around unsuspecting Camry drivers, zapping from 40 to 60 miles per hour in two seconds while the startled victims eat your electric dust". White praised the car's environmental efficiency but said consumer demand reflected not the environmental attributes of the car but its performance. "The Tesla turns the frugal environmentalist aesthetic on its head. Sure, it doesn't burn petroleum, and if plugged into a wind turbine or a nuclear plant, it would be a very low-carbon machine. But anyone who buys one will get the most satisfaction from smoking someone's doors off. The Tesla's message is that "green" technology can appeal to the id, not just the superego".[174]

In December 2009, Motor Trend was the first to independently confirm the Roadster Sport's reported 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) time of 3.7 seconds. (Motor Trend recorded 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) of 3.70 seconds; it recorded a quarter-mile test at 12.6 sec at 165.1 km/h (102.6 mph)). Engineering editor Kim Reynolds called the acceleration "breathtaking" and said the car confirms "Tesla as an actual car company. .Tesla is the first maker to crack the EV legitimacy barrier in a century".[175]

In November 2009, Automobile Magazine West Coast editor Jason Cammisa spent a week driving a production Tesla Roadster.[176] Cammisa was immediately impressed with the acceleration, saying the car "explodes off the line, pulling like a small jet plane. . It's like driving a Lamborghini with a big V-12 revved over 6000 rpm at all times, waiting to pounce—without the noise, vibration, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, or misdemeanor arrest for disturbing the peace". He also took the car to Infineon Raceway in Sonoma, California, and praised the car for its robustness, saying the Roadster:

"wins the Coolest Car I've Ever Driven award. Why? Despite the flat-out sprints, the drag racing, the donuts, the top-speed runs, and dicing through traffic like there's a jet pack strapped to the trunk, Pacific Gas and Electric—which generated power for the Tesla—released into the atmosphere the same amount of carbon dioxide as would a gasoline-powered car getting 99 mpg. And the Roadster didn't break. It didn't smoke, lock up, freeze, or experience flux-capacitor failure. Over the past ten decades, no company has been able to reinvent the car—not General Motors with the EV1, not Toyota with the Prius. And now, a bunch of dudes from Silicon Valley have created an electric car that really works—as both an environmental fix and a speed fix".

In 2009 the Tesla Roadster was one of the Scandinavian Sports Car of the Year participants. In a comparison made by Nordic car magazines Tekniikan Maailma (Finland), Teknikens Värld (Sweden) and Bil Magasinet (Denmark), critics praised the torque of the car and a track car structure, but also highlighted more negative aspects such as a short battery life; they were unable to drive a full track lap in dry track conditions.[177]

In May 2009, Car and Driver technical editor Aaron Robinson wrote a review based on the first extended test-drive of a production Tesla Roadster. Robinson had the car for nearly a week at his home. He complained of "design anomalies, daily Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, absurd ergonomics, and ridiculous economics " and stated he never got to see if the car could go 240 miles on a single charge because the torturous seating forced him to stop driving the car. He also complained of Tesla increasing the car prices on those who had already made deposits and charging extra for Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen free necessary components.[178]

In February 2009, automotive critic Dan Neil of the Los Angeles Times called the production Tesla Roadster "a superb piece of machinery: stiff, well sorted, highly focused, dead-sexy and eerily quick". Neil said he had the car for 24 hours but "caned it like the Taliban caned Gillette salesmen and it never even blinked".[179]

In February 2009, Road & Track tested another production vehicle and conducted the first independently verified metered testing of the Roadster. Engineering editor Dennis Simanitis said the testing confirmed what he called "extravagant claims", that the Roadster had a 4.0 s 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) acceleration and a 320-kilometre (200 mi) range. They said the Roadster felt like "an over-ballasted Lotus Elise", but the weight was well-distributed, so the car remained responsive. "Fit and finish of our Tesla were exemplary", which Road & Track thought fit the target market. Overall, they considered it a "delight" to drive.[180] Testing a pre-production car in early 2008, Road & Track said "The Tesla feels composed and Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen at speed with great turn-in and transitioning response", though they recommended against it as a "primary grocery-getter".[181]

In January 2009, automotive critic Warren Brown of The Washington Post called the production Roadster "a head-turner, jaw-dropper. It is sexy as all get-out". He described the feeling behind the wheel as, "Wheeeeeee! Drive a Tesla, even if you have to fly to Tesla's Menlo Park, Calif., headquarters, to get your hands on one for a day. . If this is the future of the automobile, I want it".[182]

In a review of a Roadster prototype before the cars were in serial production, Motor Trend gave a generally favorable review in March 2008, stating that, it was "undeniably, unbelievably efficient" and would be "profoundly humbling to just about any rumbling Ferrari or Porsche that makes the mistake of pulling up next to a silent, 2.2 L/100 km; 126 mpg‑imp (105 mpg‑US) Tesla Roadster at a stoplight"; however, they detected a "nasty drive-train buck" during the test drive of an early Roadster with the older, two-speed transmission.[183]

In a July 8, 2007, review of a prototype Roadster, Jay Leno wrote, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, "If you like Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen cars and you want to be green, this is the only way to go. The Tesla is a car that you can live with, drive and enjoy as a sports car. I had a brief Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen in the car and it was quite impressive. This is an electric car that is fun to drive".[184]

In a November 27, 2006, review of a prototype Roadster in Slate, Paul Boutin wrote, "A week ago, I went for a spin in the fastest, most fun car I've ever ridden in—and that includes MSTech Easy Desktop Organizer Pro Crack 2.0.0.0 Serial Key 2021 Aston Martin I tried to buy once. I was so excited, in fact, that I decided to take a few days to calm down before writing about it. Well, my waiting period is over, I'm thinking rationally, and I'm still unbelievably stoked about the Tesla".[185]

Top Gear controversy[edit]

In the third quarter of 2008, Top Gear's Jeremy Clarkson reviewed two production Roadsters with the v1.5 transmission and described the driving experience with the exclamations "God Almighty! Wave goodbye to the world of dial-up, and say hello to the world of broadband motoring!" and "This car is biblically quick!" when comparing the acceleration versus the car the Roadster was based on, a Lotus Elise. Clarkson also noted, however, that the handling of the car was not as sharp as that of the Elise: "through the corners things are less rosy".[186] The segment also claimed that the car's batteries would run flat after 89 km (55 mi) of heavy use on a track[187] and showed the car being pushed off the track.[188]

Tesla spokesperson responded with statements in blogs and to mainstream news organizations that the cars provided to Top Gear never had less than 20% charge and never experienced brake failure.[189] In addition, neither car provided to Top Gear needed to be pushed off the track at any point.[190] Clarkson also showed a wind turbine with stationary rotor blades and complained that it would take countless hours to refuel the car using such a source of electricity, although the car can be charged from a 240 V 70 A outlet in as little as 3.5 hours.[191][189] After numerous blogs and several large news organizations began following the controversy,[192] the BBC issued a statement saying "the tested Tesla was filmed being pushed into the shed in order to show what would happen if the Roadster had run out of charge. Top Gear stands by the findings in this film and is content that it offers a fair representation of the Tesla's performance on the day it was tested", without addressing the other alleged misrepresentations that Tesla highlighted to the media.[193] After several weeks of increasing pressure and inquiries from the BBC, Clarkson wrote a blog entry for The Times, acknowledging that "Inevitably, the film we had shot was a bit of a mess. There was a handful of shots of a silver car. Some of a grey car". "But as a device for moving you and your things around, it is about as much use as a bag of muddy spinach".[186] Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen the months that followed Clarkson's acknowledgment, the original episode—including the misstatements—reran on BBC America and elsewhere without any editing.[citation needed]

On March 29, 2011, Tesla sued the programme over libel and malicious falsehood, while simultaneously launching the website TeslaVsTopGear.com, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The current position of Tesla is found on its web page.[194] In a blogpost, producer Andy Wilman has referred to Tesla's allegations as a "crusade" and contested the truth value of Tesla's statements.[195] On October 19, 2011, the High Court in London rejected Tesla's libel claim.[196] Tesla appealed High Court's decision to the Court of Appeal, where a three-judge panel of Lords Justice upheld the lower court's decision, and ordered Tesla to pay the BBC's legal costs of £100,000.[197]

Sales[edit]

Tesla delivered approximately 2,450 Roadsters worldwide between February 2008 and Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen 2012.[8][9][10] Featuring new options and enhanced features, the 2012 Tesla Roadster was sold in limited numbers only in mainland Europe, Asia and Australia, and as of July 2012, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, less than 140 units were available for sale in Europe and Asia before the remaining inventory would be sold out.[9] Tesla's US exemption for not having special two-stage Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen airbags expired for cars made after the end of 2011 so the last Roadsters were not sold in the American market for regulatory reasons.[9][33][34] The U.S. was the leading market with about 1,800 Roadsters sold.[198] There were fewer than 50 right-hand-drive models of the Tesla Roadster produced and hand built in the UK.[citation needed]

Roadster with California's Clean Air Vehicle stickers (at the extremes of the bumper) that allows access to HOV laneswith solo driver

United States[edit]

The Roadster had a three-year, 58,000 km (36,000 mi) warranty. Tesla also offered an extended powertrain warranty and a battery replacement warranty.[citation needed]

In July 2009, Tesla announced that US consumers could finance the Roadster through Bank of America. Financing was Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen for up to 75% of the total vehicle purchase price.[199][better source needed]

Tesla sold Roadsters directly to customers. It sold them online, in 13 showrooms and over the phone in North America and Europe. Tesla does not operate through franchise dealerships but operates company-owned stores. The company said that it took its retail cues from Apple, Starbucks and other non-automotive retailers.[200]

Roadster charging in a Japanese showroom

[edit]

The company has been shipping cars to European customers since mid-2009. Tesla sold out of its EU special-edition vehicle, which had a 2010 model-year production run of 250 cars.[201] A total of 575 units have been sold in Europe through October 2012.[202]

Tesla first overseas showroom opened in London in 2009, with right-hand-drive models promised for early 2010.[12] Showrooms in Munich and Monaco were also added in 2009, followed by Zurich and Copenhagen in 2010 and Milan in 2011.[203][204] Reservations for the 2010 Roadster were available for a €3,000 refundable reservation fee.[205][206]

From 2009 to 2014, Hansjoerg von Gemmingen of Karlsruhe, Germany drove his Tesla Roadster 400,000 km (250,000 mi), this being the mileage world record for an all-electric vehicle[207][208] and reached 520,000 km (320,000 mi) in 2017. He also drove another 200,000 km (120,000 mi) in an Tesla Model S and voiced his plan to become the first man to travel a million kilometres in an electric vehicle.[209]

Kevin Yu, the director of Tesla Motors Asia Pacific, said Roadsters in Japan had additional yearly taxes for exceeding the width limit of normal sized cars.[citation needed]

Pricing complaints[edit]

In 2009, Roadster reservation holders who had already placed deposits up to US$50,000 to lock in their orders were informed that their orders had been unlocked and that they had to re-option their ordered vehicles on the threat of losing their spot on the orders list. Tesla then raised the prices of several options, and a new Tesla Roadster with the same set of features that had previously been standard became US$6,700 more expensive than before.[210] For example, the high performance charger that was previously claimed to be standard on all vehicles was changed to be an optional feature costing US$3,000, and the previously claimed standard forged alloy wheels became a US$2,300 upgrade.[211] One person who pre-ordered a Tesla Roadster complained:

"I am [pre-ordered owner] number 395. I am not a rich person dabbling in a plaything. I thought I was actually doing some good by supporting a company that was moving us to a more sustainable future. I put $50,000 of my own money down on this car in May of 2007. I withstood the delays. I held in there when it almost seemed the company was going bankrupt. Now, after locking in my options, they pull this on me."[212]

Awards[edit]

The world distance record of 501 km (311 mi) for a production electric car on a single charge was set by a Roadster on October 27, 2009, during the Global Green Challenge in outback Australia, in which it averaged a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph).[213][214] In March 2010, a Tesla Roadster became the first electric vehicle to win the Monte Carlo Alternative Energy Rally and the first to win any Federation Internationale de l'Automobile-sanctioned championship when a Roadster driven by former Formula One driver Érik Comas beat 96 competitors for range, efficiency and performance in the three-day, nearly 1,000-kilometre (620 mi) challenge.[215]

Space launch[edit]

Main article: Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster

Large circular disc of a fully-illuminated planet Earth floating in the blackness of space. In front of Earth is a red convertible <i>Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen</i> seen from the side. A humanoid figure wearing a white-and-black spacesuit is seated in the driving seat with the right-arm holding the steering wheel, and the left-arm resting on the top of the car door.
Roadster in space, prior to departing Earth orbit, with "Starman" mannequin sitting at the wheel

In December 2017, Elon Musk announced that his personal Tesla Roadster would be launched into space, serving as dummy payload on the maiden flight of the SpaceXFalcon Heavy rocket.[226] The launch on February 6, 2018 was successful; the vehicle was placed into a heliocentric orbit that took it beyond Mars's orbital path.[227][228]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Eberhard, Martin (January 24, 2007). "Vintage Oil and Other Hare-Brained Ideas". Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  2. ^"SmartWay Vehicle List for MY 2011.xlsx"(Microsoft Excel), FuelEconomy.gov, U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2011
  3. ^Thiel, Christian; Krause, Jette; Dilara, Panagiota, "Electric vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014 - is full scale commercialisation near?"(PDF), Strategic Energy Technology Information System (SETIS), European Commission, p. 32
  4. ^"Performance Specs". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved July Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, 2010.
  5. ^"High Power Wall Connector". Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  6. ^ ab"J1772 Mobile Connector". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  7. ^Shahan, Zachary (April 26, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, 2015). "Electric Car Evolution". Clean Technica. Retrieved September 8, 2016.2008: The Tesla Roadster becomes the first production electric vehicle to use lithium-ion battery cells as well as the first production electric vehicle to have a range of over 200 miles on a single charge.
  8. ^ ab"SEC Form 10-K for Fiscal Year Ended Dec 31, 2012, Commission File Number: 001-34756, Tesla Motors, Inc". SEC. February 6, 2016. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
  9. ^ abcdefWoody, Todd (July 25, 2012). "Tesla Hits Accelerator Despite Q2 Revenue Miss". Forbes. Retrieved July 25, 2012.More than 2,350 units sold through June 2012.
  10. ^ abc"Tesla Q3 report: $50M revenues, $111M GAAP net loss, 253 Model S delivered in Q3". Green Car Congress. November 5, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.Sales during the 3Q 2012: 68 Roadsters and 253 Model S.
  11. ^ ab"Tesla Motors, Inc. – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2012 Shareholder Letter"(PDF). Tesla Motors. February 20, 2013. Archived from the original(PDF) on May 27, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  12. ^ ab"Tesla will build right-hand-drive Roadsters for the UK". Wired.co.uk. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  13. ^"Growing Number of EU Countries Levying CO2 Taxes on Cars and Incentivizing Plug-ins". Green Car Congress. April 21, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  14. ^Vaughan, Adam (February 25, 2010). "Electric vehicle grants scheme backfires as taxpayers subsidise £87,000 sports cars". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  15. ^ abc"Tesla Motors Selects BorgWarner for Production of New Gearbox for Tesla Roadster". Tesla Motors. February 25, 2011.
  16. ^ abc"Roadster Innovations: Motor". Tesla Motors. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  17. ^"Tesla Motors Hosts World Debut of Tesla Roadster Offering Performance, Style & Efficiency – With a Conscience" (Press release). Tesla Motors. July 20, 2006. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
  18. ^"Batteries Included - Best Inventions of 2006". Time. US. 2006, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  19. ^Mayne, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, Eric (September 4, 2009). "Drive Tesla Roadster; Forget What You Knew About Acceleration"(PDF), Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. Wards Auto. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
  20. ^"Tesla Roadster 2". Automobiles review. July 22, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
  21. ^Cunningham, Wayne (April 30, 2010). "Globe-trotting Tesla Roadster Reaches Moscow". The Car Tech Blog. CNET.com. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  22. ^"Tesla Unveils Roadster 2.5 at Newest Stores in Europe and North America" (Press release). Tesla Motors, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. July 1, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
  23. ^"TPiR 4/22/10: Historic Golden Road - TESLA ROADSTER - $112,000+". Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  24. ^"Wind Energy". Wind in the tank (in Danish). Retrieved September 24, 2010.
  25. ^Horstmann, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Frank (April 25, 2012). "Vindoptimeret opladning af elbiler" [Wind Optimised Charging Electric Cars] (PDF). vinditanken (in Danish). Retrieved August 31, 2015.
  26. ^ abc"Tesla Motors Inc – 10-K -Management's Discussion And Analysis Of Financial Condition And Results of Operations". MSP News Channels. February 27, 2012. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
  27. ^ abWoodyard, Chris (August 3, 2011). "Tesla boasts about electric car deliveries, plans for sedan". USA Today. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  28. ^ abGarthwaite, Josie (May 6, 2011). "Tesla 98lite Pro 2.0 crack serial keygen for a Gap as Roadster Winds Down". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
  29. ^Dillow, Clay. (June 23, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, 2011) Farewell Roadster: Tesla Will Stop Taking Orders for its Iconic EV in Two Months

    Zodiac Killer

    Pseudonym of a serial killer in California

    For the New York City Zodiac copycat, see Heriberto Seda. For the Japanese Zodiac copycat, see Kobe child murders.

    The Zodiac Killer, or simply Zodiac or the Zodiac, is the pseudonym of a serial killer[1] who operated in Northern California in the late 1960s.[n 1] The case has been described as the most famous unsolved murder case in American history[2] and has become a fixture of popular culture, inspiring amateur detectives to attempt to resolve it and entertainment such as films, television, novels, and video games.

    The Zodiac murdered five known victims in the San Francisco Bay Area between December 1968 and October 1969, operating in rural, urban and suburban settings. He targeted young couples and a lone male cab driver, and his known attacks took place in Benicia, Vallejo, unincorporated Napa County, and the city of San Francisco proper. Two of his attempted victims survived. The Zodiac himself claimed to have murdered 37 victims, and he has been linked to several other cold cases, some in Southern California or outside the state.

    The Zodiac originated the name himself in a series of taunting letters and cards that he mailed to regional newspapers, threatening killing sprees and bombings if they were not printed. Some of the letters included cryptograms, or ciphers, in which the killer claimed that he was collecting his victims as slaves for the afterlife. Of the four ciphers he produced, two remain unsolved, and one took 51 years to crack. While many theories regarding the identity of the killer have been suggested, the only suspect authorities ever publicly named was Arthur Leigh Allen,[3] a former elementary school teacher and convicted sex offender who died in 1992.

    Although the Zodiac ceased written communications around 1974, the unusual nature of the case led to international interest that has sustained throughout the years.[4] The San Francisco Police Department marked the case "inactive" in April 2004, but re-opened it at some point prior to March 2007.[5][6] The case also remains open in the city of Vallejo, as well as in Napa County and Solano County.[7] The California Department of Justice has maintained an open case file on the Zodiac murders since 1969.[8]

    Murders and correspondence

    Confirmed murders

    Although the Zodiac claimed to have committed 37 murders in letters to the newspapers, investigators agree on only seven confirmed victims, two of whom survived. They are:

    • David Arthur Faraday, 17, and Betty Lou Jensen, 16: shot and killed on December 20, 1968, on Lake Herman Road, within the city limits of Benicia.
    • Michael Renault Mageau, 19, and Darlene Elizabeth Ferrin, 22: shot on July 4, 1969, in the parking lot of Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo. While Mageau survived the attack, Ferrin was pronounced dead on arrival at Kaiser Foundation Hospital.
    • Bryan Calvin Hartnell, 20, and Cecelia Ann Shepard, 22: stabbed on September 27, 1969, at Lake Berryessa in Napa County. Hartnell survived eight stab wounds to the back, but Shepard died as a result of her injuries on September 29, 1969.
    • Paul Lee Stine, 29: shot and killed on October 11, 1969, in the Presidio Heights neighborhood in San Francisco.

    Lake Herman Road murders

    David Arthur Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen

    The first murders widely attributed to the Zodiac Killer were the shootings of high school students Betty Lou Jensen and David Arthur Faraday on December 20, 1968 on Lake Herman Road, just inside Benicia city limits. The couple were on their first date Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen planned to attend a Christmas concert at Hogan High School, about three blocks from Jensen's home. They instead visited a friend before stopping at a local restaurant and then driving out on Lake Herman Road. At about 10:15 p.m., Faraday parked his mother's Rambler in a gravel turnout, which was a well-known lovers' lane. Shortly after 11:00 p.m., their bodies were found by Stella Borges, who lived nearby. The Solano County Sheriff's Department investigated the crime but no leads developed.[9]

    Utilizing available Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen data, Robert Graysmith postulated that another car pulled into the turnout just prior to 11:00 p.m. and parked beside the couple. The killer may have then exited the second car and walked toward the Rambler, possibly ordering the couple out of it. It appeared that Jensen had exited the car first, but when Faraday was halfway out, the killer shot him in the head. The killer then shot Jensen five times in the back as she fled; her body was found 28 feet from the car. The killer then drove off.[10]

    Blue Rock Springs murder

    Just before midnight on July 4, 1969, Darlene Ferrin and Michael Mageau drove into the Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo, four miles (6.4 km) from the Lake Herman Road murder site, and parked. While the couple sat in Ferrin's car, a second car drove into the lot and parked alongside them but almost immediately drove away. Returning about 10 minutes later, this second car parked behind them, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The driver of the second car then exited the vehicle, approaching the passenger side door of Ferrin's car, carrying a flashlight and a 9 mm Luger. The killer directed the flashlight into Mageau's and Ferrin's eyes before shooting at them, firing five times. Both victims were hit, and several bullets had passed through Mageau and into Ferrin. The killer walked away from the car but upon hearing Mageau's moaning, returned and shot each victim twice more before driving off.[11]

    On July 5, 1969, at 12:40 a.m., a man phoned the Vallejo Police Department to report and claim responsibility for the attack. The caller also took credit for the murders of Jensen and Faraday six and a half months earlier. Police traced the call to a phone booth at a gas station at Springs Road and Tuolumne, located about three-tenths of a mile (500 m) from Ferrin's home and only a few blocks from the Vallejo Police Department.[12] Ferrin was pronounced dead at the hospital. Mageau survived the attack despite being shot in the face, neck and chest.[13] Mageau described his attacker as a 26-to-30-year-old, 195-to-200-pound (88 to 91 kg) or possibly even more, 5-foot-8-inch (1.73 m) white male with short, light brown curly hair.

    First letters from the Zodiac

    "I like killing people because it is so much fun it is more fun than killing wild game in the forrest because man is the most dangeroue anamal of all to kill something gives me the most thrilling experence it is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl the best part of it is thae when I die I will be reborn in paradice and all the I have killed will become my slaves I will not give you my name because you will try to sloi down or atop my collectiog of slaves for my afterlife ebeorietemethhpiti"

    —The solution to Zodiac's 408-symbol cipher, solved in August 1969, including faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original. The meaning, if any, of the final eighteen letters has not been determined.[n 2][14]

    On August 1, 1969, three letters prepared by the killer IntelliJ IDEA Ultimate 2019.1 license key Archives received at the Vallejo Times Herald, the San Francisco Chronicle, and The San Francisco Examiner. The nearly identical letters, subsequently described by a psychiatrist to have been written by "someone you would expect to be brooding and isolated",[15] took credit for the shootings at Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs. Each letter also included one-third of a 408-symbol cryptogram which the killer claimed contained his identity. The killer demanded they be printed on each paper's front page or he would "cruse [sic] around all weekend killing lone people in the night then move on to kill again, until I end up with a dozen people over the weekend".[16]

    The Chronicle published its third of the cryptogram on page four of the next day's edition. An article printed alongside the code quoted Vallejo Police Chief Jack E. Stiltz as saying "We're not satisfied that the letter was written by the murderer" and requested the writer send a second letter with more facts to prove his identity.[17] The threatened murders Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen not happen, and all three parts were eventually published.

    On August 7, 1969, another letter was received at The San Francisco Examiner with the salutation "Dear Editor This is the Zodiac speaking." This was the first time the killer had used this name for identification, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The letter was a response to Chief Stiltz's request for more details that would prove he had killed Faraday, Jensen and Ferrin. In it, the Zodiac included details about the murders that had not yet been released to the public, as well as a message to the police that when they cracked his code "they will have me".[18]

    On August 8, 1969, Donald and Bettye Harden of Salinas, California cracked the 408-symbol cryptogram. It contained a misspelled message in which the killer seemed to reference "The Most Dangerous Game". The author also said that he was collecting slaves for his afterlife.[n 3] No name appears in this decoded text, and the killer said that he would not give away his identity because it would slow down or stop his slave collection.[14]

    Lake Berryessa murder

    Photo of Bryan Hartnell's car door, onto which the Zodiac Killer wrote details of his attack upon Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard

    On September 27, 1969, Pacific Union College students Bryan Hartnell and Cecelia Shepard were picnicking at Lake Berryessa on a small island connected by a sand spit to Twin Oak Ridge. A white man, about 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) weighing more than 170 pounds (77 kg), approached them wearing a black executioner's-type hood with clip-on sunglasses over the eye-holes and a bib-like device on his chest that had a white three-by-three-inch (7.6 cm × 7.6 cm) cross-circle symbol on it. He approached them with a gun, which Hartnell believed to be a .45. The hooded man claimed to be an escaped convict from trapcode suite 15 serial key Archives jail with a two-word name, in either Colorado or Montana (a police officer later inferred that the man had been referring to a jail in Deer Lodge, Montana), where he had killed a guard and subsequently stolen a car, explaining that he now needed their car and money to travel to Mexico because the vehicle that he had been driving was "too hot".[20]

    The killer had brought precut lengths of plastic clothesline and told Shepard to tie up Hartnell before he tied her up. The killer checked, and tightened Hartnell's bonds after discovering that Shepard had bound Hartnell's hands loosely. Hartnell initially believed this event to be a bizarre robbery, but the man drew a knife and stabbed them both repeatedly, Hartnell suffering six and Shepard ten wounds in the process.[21][22] The killer then hiked 500 yards (460 m) back up to Knoxville Road, drew the cross-circle symbol on Hartnell's car door with a black felt-tip pen, and wrote beneath it:[23][24]

    Vallejo
    12-20-68
    7-4-69
    Sept 27–69–6:30
    by knife[23][24]

    At 7:40 p.m., Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, the killer called the Napa County Sheriff's office from a pay telephone to report this latest crime. The caller first stated to the operator that he wished to "report a murder – no, a double murder,"[25] before stating that he had been the perpetrator of the crime. The phone was found, still off the hook, minutes later at the Napa Car Wash on Main Street in Napa by KVON radio reporter Pat Stanley, only a few blocks from Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen sheriff's office, yet 27 miles (43 km) from the crime scene. Detectives were able to lift a still-wet palm print from the telephone but were never able to match it to any suspect.[26]

    After hearing the victims' screams for help, a man and his son who were fishing in a nearby cove discovered the victims and summoned help by contacting park rangers. Napa County Sheriff's deputies Dave Collins and Ray Land were the first law enforcement officers to arrive at the crime scene.[27] Shepard was conscious when Collins arrived, providing him with a detailed description of the attacker. Hartnell and Shepard were taken to Queen of the Valley Hospital in Napa by ambulance. Shepard lapsed into a coma during transport and never regained consciousness, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. She died two days later, but Hartnell survived to recount his tale to the press.[28][29] Napa County detective Ken Narlow, who was assigned to the case from the outset, worked on solving the crime until his retirement from the department in 1987.[30]

    Presidio Heights murder

    San Francisco from the Presidio, 1966

    Two weeks later, on October 11, 1969, a white male passenger entered the cab driven by Paul Stine at the intersection of Mason and Geary Streets (one block west from Union Square) in San Francisco, requesting to be driven to Washington and Maple Streets in Presidio Heights. For reasons unknown, Stine drove one block past Maple to Cherry Street. The passenger then shot Stine once in the head with a 9 mm handgun, took Stine's wallet and car keys, and tore away a section of Stine's bloodstained shirt tail. The perpetrator was observed by three teenagers across the street WinZip Mac Pro 9.0.5520 Crack FREE Download 9:55 p.m., and they phoned the police while the crime was in progress. They observed a man wiping the cab down before walking away toward the Presidio, one block to the north.[31] Two blocks from the crime scene, patrol officers Don Fouke and Eric Zelms, responding to the call, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen a white man walking along the sidewalk east on Jackson Street and stepping onto a stairway leading up to the front yard of one of the homes on the north side of the street; the encounter lasted only five to ten seconds.[32]

    Fouke estimated the white male pedestrian to be 35 to 45 years old, 5'10" tall with a crew cut, similar to but slightly older than the description provided by the teenagers who observed the killer in and out of Stine's cab. The teenagers described the suspect to be 25 to 30 years old with a crew cut and standing approximately 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 m) to 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m) tall. However, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen police radio dispatcher had alerted officers to look out for a black suspect, so Fouke and Zelms drove past the perpetrator without stopping; the mixup in descriptions remains unexplained. A search ensued, but no suspects were found. This was the last officially confirmed murder by the Zodiac Killer.

    The Stine murder was initially believed to be a routine robbery that had escalated into homicidal violence. However, on October 13, the San Francisco Chronicle received a new letter from Zodiac that claimed credit for the killing and contained a torn section of Stine's bloody shirt to "prove this" fact.[33] The three teen witnesses worked with a police artist to prepare a composite sketch of Stine's killer; a few days later, this police artist returned, working with the witnesses to prepare a second composite sketch. Detectives Bill Armstrong and Dave Toschi were assigned to the case.[n 4] The San Francisco Police Department investigated an estimated 2,500 suspects over a period of years.[35]

    1969 mailings and 2020 breakthrough

    "I hope you are having lots of fan in trying to catch me that wasnt me on the tv show which bringo up a point about me I am not afraid of the gas chamber becaase it will send me to paradlce all the sooher because e now have enough slaves to worv for me where every one else has nothing when they reach paradice so they are afraid of death I am not afraid because i vnow that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death"

    —The solution to Zodiac's 340-symbol cipher, solved in December 2020, including faithful transliterations of spelling and grammar errors in the original.[n 5][36][37]

    On October 14, 1969, the Chronicle received another letter from the Zodiac, this time containing a swatch of Paul Stine's shirt tail as proof he was the killer; it also included a threat about killing schoolchildren on a school bus. To do this, Zodiac wrote, "just shoot out the front tire & then pick off the kiddies as they come bouncing out". At 2:00 p.m. on October 20, 1969, someone claiming to be the Zodiac called the Oakland Police Department (OPD), demanding that one of two prominent lawyers, F. Lee Bailey or Melvin Belli, appear on A.M. San Francisco, a talk show on KGO-TV hosted by Jim Dunbar. Bailey was not available, but Belli did appear on the show. Dunbar appealed to the viewers to keep the lines open. Someone claiming to be the Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen called several times, and Belli asked the caller for a less ominous name and the caller picked "Sam". The caller said he would not reveal his true identity as he was afraid of being sent to the gas chamber (then California's capital punishment method). Belli arranged a rendezvous to meet the caller outside a shop on Mission Street in Daly City, but no one arrived. The call was later traced back to a patient in a mental institution, and investigators concluded that the man was not the Zodiac.[38]

    On November 8, 1969, the Zodiac mailed a card with another cryptogram consisting of 340 characters.[39] This Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, dubbed "Z-340", remained unsolved for over 51 years. On December 5, 2020, it was deciphered by an international team of private citizens, including American software engineer David Oranchak, Australian mathematician Sam Blake and Belgian programmer Jarl Van Eycke. In the decrypted message, the Zodiac denied being the "Sam" who spoke on A.M. San Francisco, explaining that he was not afraid of the gas chamber "because it will send me to paradice [sic] all the sooner".[40] The team submitted their findings to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which verified the discovery.[40] The FBI stated that the decoded message gave no further clues to the identity of Zodiac.[41][42]

    On November 9, 1969, the Zodiac mailed a seven-page letter stating that Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen policemen stopped and actually spoke Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen him three minutes after he shot Stine. Excerpts from the letter were published in the Chronicle on November 12, including the Zodiac's claim;[43][44] that same day, Officer Don Fouke wrote a memo explaining what had happened on the night of Stine's murder. On December 20, 1969, exactly one year after the murders of David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen, the Zodiac mailed a letter to Belli that included another swatch of Stine's shirt; the Zodiac said that he wanted Belli to help him.[45]

    Public speculation and Zodiac claims

    Various authors speculated at the time of the killings that other murders and attacks may have been the work of the Zodiac, but none have been confirmed:

    • Robert George Domingos, 18, and Linda Faye Edwards, 17: shot and killed on June 4, 1963 on a beach near Gaviota. There are some specific similarities between their attack and the Zodiac's attack at Lake Berryessa five years Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen Jo Bates, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, 18: stabbed to death and nearly decapitated on October 30, 1966, at Riverside City College in Riverside. Bates's possible connection to the Zodiac only appeared four years after her murder when San Francisco Chronicle reporter Paul Avery received a tip regarding similarities between the Zodiac killings and the circumstances surrounding Bates's death.[46]
    • Donna Ann Lass, 25: last seen September 6, 1970 in Stateline, Nevada. A postcard bearing an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums (near Incline Village at Lake Tahoe) pasted on the back was received at the Chronicle on March 22, 1971. No evidence has been uncovered to connect Lass's disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.[47]
    • Kathleen Johns, 22: allegedly abducted on March 22, 1970 on Highway 132 near I-580, in an area west of Modesto. Johns escaped from the car of a man who drove her and her infant daughter around the area between Stockton and Patterson for approximately 1½ hours.[48]

    Kathleen Johns' report

    On the night of March 22, 1970, Kathleen Johns was driving from San Bernardino to Petaluma to visit her mother. She was seven months pregnant and had her 10-month-old daughter beside her.[49] While heading west on Highway 132 near Modesto, a car behind her began honking its horn and flashing its headlights. She pulled off the road and stopped. The man in the car parked behind her, approached her car, stated that he observed that her right rear wheel was wobbling, and offered to tighten the lug nuts. After finishing his work, the man drove off; yet when Johns pulled forward to re-enter the highway the wheel almost immediately came off the car, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The man returned, offering to drive her to Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen nearest gas station for help. She and her daughter climbed into his car.

    During the ride, the car passed several service stations, but the man did not stop. For about 90 minutes, he drove back and forth around the back roads near Tracy. When Johns asked why he was not stopping, he would change the subject. When the driver finally stopped at an intersection, Johns jumped out with her daughter and hid in a field. The driver searched for her using a flashlight, telling her that he would not hurt her, before eventually giving up. Unable to find her, he got back into the car and drove off. Johns hitched a ride to the police station in Patterson.[48]

    When Johns gave her statement to the sergeant on duty, she noticed the police composite sketch of Paul Stine's killer and recognized him as the man who had abducted her and her child.[50] Fearing that he might return to kill them all, the sergeant had Johns wait in the dark at nearby Mil's Restaurant. When her car was found, it had been gutted and torched.[50]

    Most accounts say that the man threatened to kill Johns and her daughter while driving them around,[51] but at least one police report disputes that.[48] Johns's account to Paul Avery of the Chronicle indicates that her abductor left his car and searched for her in the dark with a flashlight;[52] however, in one Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen she made to the police, she stated that he did not leave the vehicle.[48][original research?]

    Further Zodiac communications

    The crosshair-like symbol with which the Zodiac signed his letters

    Zodiac continued to communicate with authorities for the remainder of 1970 via letters and greeting cards to the press. In a letter postmarked April 20, 1970, the Zodiac wrote, "My name is _____," followed by a 13-character cipher that hasn't been solved to this day.[53] The Zodiac went on to state that he was not responsible for the recent bombing of a police station in San Francisco (referring to the February 18, 1970, death of Sgt. Brian McDonnell two days after the bombing at Park Station in Golden Gate Park)[54] but added "there is more glory to killing a cop than a cid [sic] because a cop can shoot back." The letter included a diagram of a bomb the Zodiac claimed that he would use to blow up a school bus. At the bottom of the diagram, he wrote: "Zodiac Killer symbol.svg = 10, SFPD = 0."[55]

    Zodiac sent a greeting Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen postmarked April 28, 1970 to the Chronicle. Written on the card was "I hope you enjoy yourselves when I have my BLAST," followed by the Zodiac's cross-circle signature. On the back of the card, the Zodiac threatened to use the bus bomb soon unless the newspaper published the full details that he had written. He also wanted to start seeing people wearing "some nice Zodiac butons [sic]".[56]

    In a letter postmarked June 26, 1970, the Zodiac stated that he was upset that he did not see people wearing Zodiac buttons. He wrote, "I shot a man sitting in a parked car with a .38."[57] The Zodiac was possibly referring to the murder of 25-year-old Sgt. Richard Radetich one week earlier. At 5:25 a.m. on June 19, Radetich was writing a parking ticket in his squad car when an assailant unrelated to the traffic violation shot him in the head with a .38-caliber pistol through the closed driver's side window.[58] Radetich died 15 hours later. The San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) denies that the Zodiac was involved; the murder remains unsolved.[54]

    Included with the letter was a Phillips 66 roadmap of the San Francisco Bay area. On the image of Mount Diablo, the Zodiac had drawn a crossed circle similar to those from previous correspondence. At the top of the crossed circle, he placed a zero, a three, six, and a nine. The accompanying instructions stated that the zero was "to be set to Mag. N."[59] The letter also included a 32-letter cipher that the killer claimed would, in conjunction with the code, lead to the location of a bomb that he had buried and set to detonate in the fall. The cipher was never decoded, and the alleged bomb was never located. The killer signed the note with "Zodiac Killer symbol.svg - 12, SFPD - 0".

    In a letter to the Chronicle postmarked July 24, 1970, the Zodiac took credit for Kathleen Johns's abduction, four months after the incident.[60] In a July 26, 1970 letter, the Zodiac paraphrased a song from The Mikado, adding his own lyrics about making a "little list" of the ways in which he planned to torture his "slaves" in "paradice [sic]".[61] The letter was signed with a large, exaggerated crossed-circle symbol and a new score: "Zodiac Killer symbol.svg = 13, SFPD = 0".[62] A final note at the bottom of the letter stated, "P.S. The Mt. Diablo code concerns Radians + # inches along the radians."[63] In 1981, a close examination of the radian hint by Zodiac researcher Gareth Penn led to the discovery that a radian angle, when placed Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen the map per Zodiac's instructions, pointed to the locations of two Zodiac attacks.[64]

    On October 7, 1970, the Chronicle received a three-by-five inch card signed by the Zodiac with the Zodiac Killer symbol.svg and a small cross reportedly drawn with blood. The card's message was formed by pasting words and letters from an edition of the Chronicle, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, and Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen holes were punched across the card. Inspectors Armstrong and Toschi agreed that it was "highly probable" that the card had been sent by the Zodiac.[65]

    Letter to Paul Avery

    The Halloween card addressed to Paul Avery on October 27, 1970

    On October 27, 1970, Chronicle reporter Paul Avery (who had been covering the Zodiac case) received a Halloween card signed with a letter 'Z' and the Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol. Handwritten inside the card was the note "Peek-a-boo, you are doomed." The threat was taken seriously and was the subject of a front-page story in the Chronicle.[46] Soon after Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen the letter, Avery received an anonymous letter alerting him to the similarities between the Zodiac's activities and the unsolved murder of Cheri Jo Bates, which had occurred four years earlier at the city college in Riverside in the Greater Los Angeles Area, more than 400 miles (640 km) south of San Francisco.[66] Avery reported Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen findings in the Chronicle on November 16, 1970.

    Main article: Murder of Cheri Jo Bates

    On October 30, 1966, an 18-year-old student at Riverside City College, Cheri Jo Bates, spent the evening at the campus library annex until it closed at 9:00 p.m. Neighbors reported hearing a scream around 10:30 p.m. Bates was found dead the next morning, a short distance from the library, between two abandoned houses slated to be demolished for campus renovations, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The wires in her Volkswagen's distributor cap had been pulled out. She was brutally beaten and stabbed to death. A man's Timex watch with a torn wristband was found Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen The watch had stopped at 12:24,[68] but police believe that the attack had occurred much earlier.[67]

    A month later, on November 29, 1966, nearly identical typewritten letters were mailed to the Riverside police and the Riverside Press-Enterprise, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, titled "The Confession". The author claimed responsibility for the Bates murder, providing details of the crime that were not released to the public. The author warned that Bates "is Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen the first and she will not be the last".[69] In December 1966, a poem was discovered carved into the bottom side of a desktop in the Riverside City College library. Titled "Sick of living/unwilling to die", the poem's language and handwriting resembled that of the Zodiac's letters. It was signed with what were assumed to be the initials rh. During the 1970 investigation, Sherwood Morrill, California's top "questioned documents" examiner, expressed his opinion that the poem was written by the Zodiac.[70]

    On April 30, 1967, exactly six months after the Bates murder, Bates' father Joseph, the Press-Enterprise, and the Riverside police all received nearly identical letters. In handwritten scrawl, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, the Press-Enterprise and police copies read "Bates had to die there will be more," with a small scribble at the bottom that resembled the letter Z. Joseph Bates' copy read "She had to die there will be more," this time without the Z signature.[71] In August 2021, the Riverside Police Department's Homicide Cold Case Unit announced that the author of the handwritten letters anonymously contacted investigators in 2016 and was identified via DNA analysis in 2020. He admitted the correspondence was a distasteful hoax and apologized, explaining Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen he had been a troubled teenager and wrote the letters as a means of seeking attention. Investigators confirmed that the author was not the Zodiac.[72]

    On March 13, 1971, five months after Avery's article linking the Zodiac to the Riverside murder, the Zodiac mailed a letter to the Los Angeles Times. In the letter he credited the police, instead of Avery, for discovering his "Riverside activity, but they are only finding the easy ones, there are a hell of a lot more down there".[73]

    The connection between Cheri Jo Bates, Riverside and the Zodiac remains uncertain. Paul Avery and the Riverside Police Department maintain that the Bates homicide was not committed by the Zodiac, but did concede that some of the Bates letters may have been his work to claim credit falsely.[74]

    Lake Tahoe disappearance

    The Lake Tahoe card addressed to Paul Avery on March 22, 1971

    On March 22, 1971, a postcard to the Chronicle, addressed to "Paul Averly" [sic] and believed to be from the Zodiac, appeared to claim responsibility for the disappearance of Donna Lass on September 6, 1970.[47] Made from a collage of advertisements and magazine lettering, it featured a scene from an advertisement for Forest Pines condominiums and the text "Sierra Club", "Sought Victim 12",[75] "peek through the pines", "pass Lake Tahoe areas", and "around in the snow". The Zodiac's crossed-circle symbol was in both the place of the usual return address and the lower-right Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen of the front face of the postcard.[76]

    Lass was a nurse at the Sahara Tahoe hotel and casino. She worked until about 2:00 a.m. on September 6, 1970,[76] treating her last patient at 1:40 a.m. Later that same day, both Lass's employer and her landlord received phone calls from an unknown male falsely claiming that Lass had left town because of a family emergency.[77] Lass was never found. What appeared to be a gravesite was discovered near the Clair Tappaan Lodge in Norden, California, on Sierra Club property.[78] No evidence has been uncovered to definitively connect the Lass disappearance with the Zodiac Killer.

    Santa Barbara County murders

    In a Vallejo Times-Herald story appearing on November 13, 1972,[79] Bill Baker of the Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office postulated that the 1963 murders of a young couple in northern Santa Barbara County might have been the work of the Zodiac Killer. On June 4, 1963, high school senior Robert Domingos and his fiancée Linda Edwards were shot dead on a beach near Lompoc, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, having skipped school that day for "Senior Ditch Day". Police believed that the assailant attempted to bind the victims, but when they freed themselves and attempted to flee, the killer shot them repeatedly in the back and chest with a .22-caliber weapon. The killer then placed their bodies in a small shack and then tried, unsuccessfully, to burn the structure to the ground.[80]

    Final Zodiac letter

    After the Lake Tahoe card, the Zodiac remained silent for nearly three years. The Chronicle then received a letter from the Zodiac, postmarked January 29, 1974, praising The Exorcist as "the best saterical comidy [sic] that I have ever seen". The letter included a snippet of verse from The Mikado and an unusual symbol at the bottom that has remained unexplained by researchers. Zodiac concluded the letter with a new score, "Me = 37, SFPD = 0".[81]

    Later letters of suspicious authorship

    Of further communications sent by the public to members of the news media, some contained similar characteristics of previous Zodiac writings. The Chronicle received a letter postmarked February 14, 1974, informing the editor that the initials for the Symbionese Liberation Army spelled out an Old Norse word meaning "kill".[82] However, the handwriting was not authenticated as the Zodiac's.[83]

    A letter to the Chronicle, postmarked May 8, 1974, featured a complaint that the movie Badlands was "murder-glorification" and asked the paper to cut its advertisements. Signed only "A citizen", the handwriting, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, tone, and surface irony were all similar to earlier Zodiac communications.[84] The Chronicle subsequently received an anonymous letter postmarked July 8, 1974, complaining of their publishing the writings of the antifeminist columnist Marco Spinelli. The letter was signed "the Red Phantom (red with rage)". The Zodiac's authorship of this letter is debated.[84]

    A letter, dated April 24, 1978, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, was initially deemed authentic but was declared a hoax less than three months later by three experts. Dave Toschi, the SFPD homicide detective who had worked the case since the Stine murder, was thought to have forged the letter. Author Armistead Maupin believed the letter to be similar to "fan mail" that praised the work of Toschi in the investigation, which Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen received in 1976; he believed both letters were written by Toschi. While he admitted to writing the fan mail, Toschi denied forging the Zodiac letter and was eventually cleared of any charges. The authenticity of this letter remains unverified.

    On March 3, 2007, an American GreetingsChristmas card sent to the Chronicle, postmarked 1990 in Eureka, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, was re-discovered in their photo files by editorial assistant Daniel King. This letter was handed over to the Vallejo police.[85] Inside the envelope, with the card, was a photocopy of two U.S. Postal keys on a magnet keychain. The handwriting on the envelope resembles Zodiac's print but was declared inauthentic by forensic document examiner Lloyd Cunningham; however, not all Zodiac experts agree with Cunningham's analysis.[86] There is no return address on the envelope nor is his crossed-circle signature to be found. The card itself is Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. The Chronicle turned over all the material to the Vallejo Police Department for further analysis.

    21st century developments

    In April 2004, the SFPD marked the case "inactive", citing caseload pressure and resource demands, effectively closing the case.[87][88] However, they re-opened their case Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen before March 2007.[6][89] The case is open in Napa County[90] and in the city of Riverside.[91]

    In February 2020, local historian Kristi Hawthorne put forth the idea that the Zodiac may have Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen cab driver Ray Davis in April 1962 in Oceanside, California. On 9 April 1962, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, the day before the murder, an individual believed to be the culprit had phoned the Oceanside Police Department and told them “I Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen going to pull something here in Oceanside and you’ll never be able to figure it out”. A few days after the murder, the police received another call from who is presumed to be the same individual, in which he told police details of the murder and said he would kill a bus driver next. Following Hawthorne's research Oceanside police announced that they were "looking into" possible connections between the murder and the Zodiac.[92][93][94][95]

    In May 2018, the Vallejo Police Department announced their intention to attempt to collect the Zodiac Killer's DNA from the back of stamps he used during his correspondence. The analysis, by a private laboratory, was expected to check the DNA against GEDmatch.[96][97] It was hoped the Zodiac Killer may be caught in a similar fashion to the "Golden State Killer" Joseph James DeAngelo. In May 2018, a Vallejo police detective said that results were expected in several weeks. However, as of September 2021, no results have been reported.[98][99][100]

    In October 2021, the Case Breakers, a team of over 40 cold case investigators composed of former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers, and journalists, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, claimed to have identified the Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, who died in 2018. The team claimed to have uncovered forensic evidence and photos from Poste's darkroom, and noted that scars on Poste's forehead matched those they said were described on the killer. They also claimed that removing the letters of Poste's name from one of Zodiac's cryptograms revealed an alternate message.[101] The FBI subsequently stated that the case remained open and that there is "no new information to report," while local law enforcement expressed skepticism of the team's findings to the Chronicle.[102] Riverside police officer Ryan Railsback said the Case Breakers' claims largely relied on circumstantial evidence,[3][103] and author Tom Voigt, a Zodiac Killer investigator, called the claims "bullshit." Voigt noted that no witnesses in the case described Zodiac as having scars on his forehead.[104]

    Arthur Leigh Allen

    Robert Graysmith's book Zodiac advanced Arthur Leigh Allen, who died in 1992, as a potential suspect based on circumstantial evidence. Allen had been interviewed by police from the early days of the Zodiac investigations and was the subject of several search warrants over a 20-year period. In 2007, Graysmith noted that several police detectives described Allen as the most likely suspect.[105] In 2010, Dave Toschi stated that all the evidence against Allen ultimately "turned out to be negative".[106] Toschi's daughter said in 2018 that her father had always thought Allen had been the killer, but they did not have the evidence to prove it. Mark Ruffalo, who portrayed Toschi in the 2007 film Zodiac, commented, "If you get into who these cops were, you realize how they have to take their hunches, their personal beliefs, out of it. Dave Toschi said to me, 'As soon as that guy walked in the door, I knew it was him.' He was sure he had him, but he never had a solid piece of evidence. So he had to keep investigating every other lead."[107]

    On October 6, 1969, Allen was interviewed by detective John Lynch of the Vallejo Police Department. Allen had been reported in the vicinity of the Lake Berryessa attack against Hartnell and Shepard on September 27, 1969; he described himself scuba diving at Salt Point on the day of the attacks.[108] Allen again came to police attention in 1971 when his friend Donald Cheney reported to police in Manhattan Beach, California, that Allen had spoken of his desire to kill people, use the name Zodiac, and secured a flashlight to a firearm for visibility at night. According to Cheney, this conversation occurred no later than January 1, 1969.[109]

    Jack Mulanax of the Vallejo Police Department subsequently wrote Allen had received an other than honorable discharge from the U.S. Navy in 1958, and had been fired from his job as an elementary school teacher in March 1968 after allegations of sexual misconduct with students. He was generally well-regarded by those who knew him, but he was also described as "fixated on young children and angry at women".

    In September 1972, San Francisco police obtained a search warrant for Allen's residence.[110] In 1974, Allen was arrested for sexually assaulting a 12-year-old boy;[111] he pleaded guilty and served two years imprisonment.

    Vallejo police served another search warrant at Allen's residence in February 1991.[112] Two days after Allen's death in 1992, Vallejo police served another warrant and seized property from Allen's residence.[113] In July 1992, victim Mike Mageau identified Allen as the man who shot him in 1969 Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen a photo line-up, saying "That's him! That's the man who shot me".[114][115] However police officer Donald Fouke, who is speculated to have seen the Zodiac fleeing from the Stine killing, said in the 2007 documentary His Name Was Arthur Leigh Allen that Allen weighed about 100 pounds more than the man he saw, adding that his face was "too round". While Nancy Slover, who received the call from the Zodiac in the aftermath of the Mageau/Ferrin shooting said that Allen did not sound like the man on the phone.[116]

    Other evidence existed against Allen, albeit entirely circumstantial. A letter sent to the Riverside Police Department from Bates's killer was typed with a Royal typewriter with an Elite type, the same brand found during the February 1991 search of Allen's residence. He owned and wore a Zodiac brand wristwatch. He lived in Vallejo and worked minutes away from where one of the Zodiac victims (Ferrin) lived and from where one of the killings took place.[117]

    In 2002, the SFPD developed a partial DNA profile from the saliva on stamps and envelopes of Zodiac's letters. The SFPD compared this partial DNA to the DNA of Arthur Leigh Allen.[118][119] A DNA comparison was also made with the DNA of Don Cheney, who was Allen's former close friend and the first person to suggest Allen may be the Zodiac Killer. Since neither test result indicated a match, Allen and Cheney were excluded as the contributors of the DNA.[120]

    Retired police handwriting expert Lloyd Cunningham, who worked on the Zodiac case for decades, stated, "They gave me banana boxes full of Allen's writing, and none of his writing even came close to the Zodiac. Nor did DNA extracted from the envelopes (on the Zodiac letters) come close to Arthur Leigh Allen."[4]

    Public speculation

    • Ross Sullivan became a person of interest through the possible link between the Zodiac Killer and the murder of Cheri Jo Bates in Riverside. Sullivan was a library assistant at Riverside City College and was suspected by coworkers who said that he went missing for several days after the murder. Sullivan resembled sketches of the Zodiac and wore military-style boots with footprints like those found at the Lake Berryessa crime scene. Sullivan was hospitalized multiple times for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.[121]
    • Lawrence Kaye, later Lawrence Kane: Kathleen Johns, who claimed to have been abducted by the Zodiac Killer, picked out Kane in a photo lineup. Patrol officer Don Fouke, who possibly observed the Zodiac Killer following the murder of Paul Stine, said that Kane closely resembled the man he and Eric Zelms encountered. Kane worked at the same Nevada hotel as possible Zodiac victim Donna Lass. Kane was diagnosed with impulse-control disorder after suffering brain injuries in a 1962 accident. He was arrested for voyeurism and prowling.[121] Fayçal Ziraoui, a French-Moroccan business consultant, claimed in 2021 that he solved the Z13 cipher and the solution to the puzzle reads "My name is Kayr", which he said is a likely typo for Kaye. Others disputed that Ziraoui could have solved the cypher. Kane died in 2010.[122]
    • Police informants accused Richard Marshall of being the Zodiac Killer, claiming that he privately hinted at being a murderer. Marshall lived in Riverside in 1966 and San Francisco in 1969, close to the scenes of the Bates and Stine murders, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. He was a silent film enthusiast and projectionist, screening Segundo de Chomón's The Red Phantom (1907), a name used by the author of a possible 1974 Zodiac letter. Detective Ken Narlow said that "Marshall makes good reading but [is] not a very good suspect in my estimation."[121]
    • Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, was investigated for possible connections to the Zodiac Killer in 1996. Kaczynski worked in northern California at the time of the Zodiac murders and, like the Zodiac, had an interest in cryptography and threatened the press into publishing his communications.[123] Kaczynski was ruled out by both the FBI and SFPD based on fingerprint and handwriting comparison, and by his absence from California on certain dates of known Zodiac activity.[124]
    • The Manson Family: following the capture of Charles Manson and his murderous cult, a 1970 report by the California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation stated that all male members of the Manson Family had been investigated and eliminated as Zodiac suspects.[124]
    • In 2007, Dennis Kaufman claimed that his stepfather Jack Tarrance was the Zodiac.[125] Kaufman turned several items over to the FBI, including a hood similar to the one worn by the Zodiac. According to news sources, DNA analysis conducted by the FBI on the items was deemed inconclusive in 2010.[126]
    • In 2009, former lawyer Robert Tarbox, who was disbarred in August 1975 by the California Supreme Court for failure to pay some clients,[127][128] said that in the early 1970s a merchant mariner walked into his office and confessed to him that he was the Zodiac Killer. The seemingly lucid seaman, whose name Tarbox would not reveal based on confidentiality, described his crimes briefly but persuasively enough to convince Tarbox. The man said he was trying to stop himself from his "opportunistic" murder spree but never returned to see Tarbox again. Tarbox took out a full-page ad in the Vallejo Times-Herald that he claimed would clear the name of Arthur Leigh Allen as a killer, his only reason for revealing the story 30 years after the fact. Robert Graysmith, the author of several books on Zodiac, said Tarbox's story was "entirely plausible".
    • In 2009, an episode of the History Channel television series MysteryQuest looked at newspaper editor Richard Gaikowski. During the time of the murders, Gaikowski worked for Good Times, a San Francisco counterculture newspaper. His appearance resembled the composite sketch, and Nancy Slover, the Vallejo police dispatcher who was contacted by the Zodiac shortly after the Blue Rock Springs Attack, identified a recording of Gaikowski's voice as being the same as the Zodiac's.[129]
    • Retired police detective Steve Hodel argues in his book The Black Dahlia Avenger that his father, George Hodel, was the Black Dahlia killer, whose victims include Elizabeth Short.[130] The book led to the release of previously suppressed files and wire recordings by the Los Angeles district attorney's office of his father, which showed that the elder Hodel had indeed been a prime suspect in Short's murder. District Attorney Steve Kaye subsequently wrote a letter which is published in the revised edition stating that if George Hodel were still alive he would be prosecuted for the crimes.[131] In a follow-up book, Hodel argued a circumstantial case that his father was also the Zodiac Killer based upon a police sketch, the similarity of the style of the Zodiac letters to the Black Dahlia Avenger letters and questioned document examination.[132]
    • On February 19, 2011, America's Most Wanted featured a story about the Zodiac Killer. In 2010, a picture surfaced of known Zodiac victim Darlene Ferrin and an unknown man who closely resembles the composite sketch, formed based on eyewitnesses' descriptions, of the Zodiac Killer. Police believe the photo was taken in San Francisco in the middle of 1966 or 1967.[133]
    • Convicted serial killer Edward Edwards, who committed five murders between 1977 and 1996, was linked to the Zodiac murders and several other unsolved cases by former cold case detective John A. Cameron. Cameron's theories were met with "almost universal disdain, especially from law enforcement".[134]
    • Former California Highway Patrol officer Lyndon Lafferty said the Zodiac Killer was a 91-year-old Solano County, California, man he referred to by the pseudonym George Russell Tucker.[135] Using a group of retired law enforcement officers called the Mandamus Seven, Lafferty discovered Tucker and outlined an alleged cover-up for why he was not pursued.[136] Tucker died in February 2012 and was not named because he was not considered a suspect by police.[137]
    • In February 2014, it was reported that Louis Joseph Myers had confessed to a friend in 2001 that he was the Zodiac Killer after learning that he was dying from cirrhosis of the liver. He requested that his friend, Randy Kenney, go to the police upon his death. Myers died in 2002, but Kenney allegedly had difficulties getting officers to cooperate and take the claims seriously. There are several potential connections between Myers and the Zodiac case; Myers attended the same high schools as victims David Farraday and Betty Lou Jensen, and allegedly worked in the same restaurant as victim Darlene Ferrin. During the 1971–1973 period, when no Zodiac letters were received, Myers was stationed overseas with the military. Kenney says that Myers confessed he targeted couples because he had had a bad breakup with a girlfriend. While officers associated with the case are skeptical, they believe the story Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen credible enough to investigate if Kenney could produce credible evidence.[138]
    • Robert Ivan Nichols, also known as Joseph Newton Chandler III, was a formerly unidentifiedidentity thief who committed suicide in Eastlake, Ohio, in July 2002. After his death, investigators were unable to locate his family and discovered that he had stolen the identity of an eight-year-old boy who was killed in a car crash in Texas in 1945. The lengths to which Nichols went to hide his identity led to speculation that he was a violent fugitive. The U.S. Marshals Service announced his identification at a press conference in Cleveland on June 21, Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, 2018. Some Internet sleuths suggested that he might have been the Zodiac Killer, as he resembled police sketches of the Zodiac and had lived in California, where the Zodiac operated.[139][140][141]
    • In 2014, Gary Stewart published a book, The Most Dangerous Animal of All, in which he claimed his search for his biological father, Earl Van Best Jr., led him to conclude Van Best was the Zodiac Killer. In Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen, the book was adapted for FX Network as a documentary series.[142]
    • Since 2018, a journalistic inquiry on a connection between the Zodiac and Monster of Florence cases is being published on the website of Italian magazine Tempi,[143] also appearing in newspapers Libero[144] and Il Giornale[145] (which following the publication of Amicone's first article in Libero in 2021 retreated).[146] The suspect is a former superintendent of the Florence American Cemetery in Italy, Joseph "Joe" Bevilacqua, also known as Giuseppe, who was born on December 20, 1935, in Totowa, New Jersey, and had a 20-years career in the Army when he left it to move to Florence in 1974.[147][144] Francesco Amicone, the author of inquiry, wrote an account of a Bevilacqua's partial admission, in which he would have confessed to Amicone to being responsible of the murders attributed to the Zodiac killer and the Monster of Florence in an unregistered conversation occurred on September 11, 2017. After the release of the first part of the inquiry in May 2018, Bevilacqua denied his admission; even though he threatened him with a lawsuit, Amicone did not stop to accuse him. In 2021, Amicone reported that Bevilacqua would have been an undercover CID agent assigned to an investigation in San Francisco concerning SMA William O. Wooldridge and other Army sergeants at the time of Zodiac's homicides in 1969 and 1970. While Army criminal investigator in Italy in the early 1970s, Bevilacqua would have had access to a case file of a double murder that occurred near Florence in 1968 where bullets and shell casings had been improperly stored.[148] Bevilacqua replaced the pieces of evidence with spent cartridges shot by the gun he would use in the Monster of Florence's homicides in order to link his future crimes to those murders for which he had an alibi.[148] Italian authorities collected Bevilacqua's DNA in late 2020.[144]
    • On October 6, 2021, The Case Breakers, an independent team of 40 former law enforcement investigators, military intelligence officers and journalists, claimed to have identified the Zodiac Killer as Gary Francis Poste, but this information was not confirmed by the Vallejo Police Department. The Case Breakers have requested that police test the Zodiac Killer's DNA evidence to confirm it matches the DNA of Gary Francis Poste.[149][150][151] The police, however, said that the case is not solved and that the killer was not identified yet. "The Zodiac Killer case remains open. We have no new information to share at the moment", an FBI spokesman told CNN.[152]

    Letters and ciphers gallery

    • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on July 31, 1969

    • The decryption of the July 31, 1969 408-cipher by Donald and Bettye Harden

    • Zodiac's letter sent to the Vallejo Times-Herald on July 31, 1969

    • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on November 8, 1969 with the 340 Cipher, which was decrypted on December 5, 2020

    • Zodiac's letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20, 1970

    • Zodiac's bomb schematic sent to the San Francisco Chronicle on April 20, 1970

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ abWell into the 1970s, the Zodiac wrote letters claiming responsibility for earlier and later killings, but he has never been definitively linked to any crime that took place before 1968 or after 1969.
    2. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z408 message says:
      I like killing people because it is so much fun. It is more fun than killing wild game in the forest because man is the most dangerous animal of all. To kill something gives me the most thrilling experience. It is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl. The best part of it is that when I die, I will be reborn in paradice and all that I have killed will become my slaves. I will not give you my name because you will try to slow down or stop my collection of slaves for my afterlife. Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen after the decoding of this cipher, Vallejo police contacted a Vacaville-based psychiatrist to review the contents. This expert determined the contents were typical of a brooding and isolated individual, adding the fact the author compared the thrill of murder to the satisfaction of sex was "usually an expression of inadequacy" from a male who senses extreme rejection. The fact the author claimed to be collecting slaves for his afterlife revealed this individual's sense of omnipotence.[19]
    3. ^In 1976, Toschi would opine his belief to a reporter from the Fort Scott Tribune that the Zodiac killer lived in the San Francisco Bay area, and that the letters he had sent had been an "ego game" for him, adding: "He's a weekend killer. Why can't he get away Monday through Thursday? Does his job keep him close to home? I would speculate he maybe has a menial job, is well thought of and blends into the crowd . I think he's quite intelligent and better educated than someone who misspells words as frequently as he does in his letters."[34]
    4. ^When corrected for most errors, excluding the distinctive spelling of paradice, the Z340 message says:
      I hope you are having lots of fun in trying to catch me. That wasn't me on the TV show, which brings up a point about me. I am not afraid of the gas chamber because it will send me to paradice all the sooner, because I now have enough slaves to work for me where everyone else has nothing when they reach paradice, so they are afraid of death. I am not afraid because I know that my new life is life will be an easy one in paradice death.

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    3. ^ abFagan, Kevin (October 6, 2021), Santa Secret Valley v2.0.0 crack serial keygen. "Zodiac Killer case solved? Case Breakers group makes an ID, but police say it doesn't hold up". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
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